《英華口才集》(廈門白話手冊)對話(1~68)

《英華口才集》(廈門白話手冊/A Manual of the Amoy Colloquial),西元1871年出版,是一本廈門話初學指南。寫即本冊的儂,名號做John Macgowan(中文名:麥嘉湖),伊是倫敦宣道會的,1860年來中國,代先是蹛佇上海,1863年換搬來廈門。即本冊發刊了後,濟濟儂呵咾,此去又佫陸續修訂過幾落擺。從中,1893年鼓浪嶼萃經堂(Chui Keng Tong)有發第四版的,kiám-chhái是發行量第一濟的。

我共即本《英華口才集》內底的對話摘(tiah)出來,下(hē)蹛我的「部落」(blog)頂頭。總是,若拄著kiau現此時講法無相siâng的、增差較大的,我會盡量加插一寡當今的講法入去,通做比對。

《英華口才集》(廈門白話手冊)對話(1~68),攏總68課,現此時已經全部校對編譯完成。佇咧編校的中間,差不多逐日攏有貼(tah)出來佮眾網友公家看。這以外,即mái佫有做成PDF格式的檔案,卜來送予逐个儂。有卜挃「PDF格式檔案」的朋友,chiah勞煩汝ji̍h下底的鏈結。

一、PDF格式的檔案

Download(PDF格式的檔案):《英華口才集》(廈門白話手冊)對話(1~68)

二、有法通編輯的文字檔案

《英華口才集》(廈門白話手冊)對話

◎校對/編譯:Limkianhui

〈Conversations on a variety of subjects〉
《關係各行業的對話》

How to study. 1.
如何學習(卜怎樣來學習)

Quest. Teacher, how shall I begin to study?
老師,我該如何學起呢?
Sian-siⁿ taⁿ beh cháiⁿ-iūⁿ tha̍k khí?
先生今卜怎樣讀起?

Ans. You must first learn the tones.
你必須先了解讀音。
Tāi-seng tio̍h tha̍k im.
代先,著讀音。

Quest. Why must I do that?
為什麼要這樣做呢?
Siáⁿ-sū tio̍h àn-ni?
啥事①著按呢?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ tio̍h án-ni?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣著按呢?

Ans. You will not speak plainly if your tones are not correct.
發音如果不正確,就講不清楚。
Im nā bô chiàⁿ, kóng chiū bōe bêng.
音若無正,講就勿會明②。

Quest. How many tones are there in all?
一共有多少個讀音呢?
Lóng-chóng ū jōa-chōe im?
攏總有偌濟音?

Ans. There are said to be eight, but there are really only seven.
說是說八個,但事實只有七個。
Kóng sī poeh ê, nā ū chhit ê nā-tiāⁿ.
講是8个,但有③7个但定。
Kóng sī 8 ê, kan-ta ū 7 ê nā-niā.〖當今的講法〗
講是8个,干單有7个nā-niā。

Quest. Will you first read them to me?
你先讀給我聽好嗎?
Lí tāi-seng tha̍k góa thiaⁿ, hó mah?
汝代先讀我聽,好嗎?
Lí seng tha̍k góa thiaⁿ, hó m̄?
汝先讀我聽,好毋?〖當今的講法〗

Ans. Yes, I’ll read them.
好的,我來讀。
Hó, góa tha̍k.
好,我讀。

Quest. Are there combinations of the tones?
這些讀音能組合嗎④?
Chiah-ê im ū tàu-oá bô?
遮个音有鬥倚無?

Ans. Sometimes there are, and sometimes not.
有時有,有時沒有。
Ū-sî ū, ū-sî bô.

Quest. In combination do they lose their own tones?
組合在一起,會變調嗎?
Tàu-oá oē cháu-khiuⁿ bōe?
鬥倚會走腔⑤勿會?
Tàu-oá oē piàn-khiuⁿ bōe?〖當今的講法〗
鬥倚會變腔勿會?

Ans. They certainly do.
肯定會的。
Koat-toàn oē.
決斷⑥會⑦。

【添注、說明】

①「啥事」(Siáⁿ-sū),照即陣的閩南語來講,即个「啥事」聽著有較「文」,bōe輸較siâng有「漢學仔味」佇咧,較無合(ha̍h)生活語言的氣口。「啥事著按呢?」換做即陣的講法,較慣勢講做「怎樣(按怎)著按呢?」。咱毋知影當時廈門話是毋真正較慣勢按呢講?是毋是佇咧翻譯的時陣,有作者個人的主張?咱所知,即本冊比杜嘉德(Carstairs Douglas, 1830~1877)彼本《廈英大辭典》(嘛有翻譯做「廈門音漢英大辭典」,英文名「Chinese English dictionary of Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, with the principal variations of the Chang chew and Chin chew dialects」)較早兩年出版,後來台灣出的《日台典》、《台日典》定著有參考即兩本冊,所以,咱會通佇《台日大辭典》內底揣著濟濟kiau即兩本冊siâng款的詞條,彼嘛無奇怪。
②「正」,正確、標準;「明」,分明、清楚。這通予咱知影講當時廈門話有真濟像即款的「單音節」詞彙,比現此時的閩南話加較濟。
③「但」(nā),意思是「kan-ta」,即陣的廈門話、同安話、漳州話、台灣話攏毋捌聽著即个單音節的「但」(nā),拍算是失落去囉,無去囉。不而過,晉江、石獅(泉腔)猶佫有咧講「nā」佮「nāu」(「nāu」拍算是「但(nā)」佮「有(ū)」兩字的合音)。
④「嗎」(mah),若是照原文句尾的 「mah」來看,通看出這明顯是「疑問」,毋是「反問」的語氣,因為佫有英語原句通對照。不而過,往過白話字的文獻,較濟「mah」是用來做「反問語氣的句尾疑問助詞」。像下底對話的句法,我感覺有「反問」的語氣佇咧。比論講:

阿龍: 阿華,汝早起明明無去嘛!是按怎硬卜騙儂講汝有去?
阿華: 我無去?!無汝講我去佗位嘛?!

阿龍講的「嘛」,佮阿華講的「嘛」,我感覺計計有「反問」的語氣。
⑤「走腔」,若照理解,拍算是「走調」、「走音」。照講,佮文中對話卜表達的「變調」無siâng。所以,拍算即詞用佇遮無通妥當。
⑥「決斷」,算早前閩南話的詞彙,即陣罕得聽著儂按呢講囉。百外年,閩南話舊早的詞彙,有的直直無去,有的直直變。
⑦「會」,較早泉州腔攏讀做/ue/,當時廈門腔嘛siâng款讀/ue/,不而過,當今廈門攏chiâu讀/e/較濟,罕得佫聽著/ue/即个腔囉。

Engaging a teacher. 2.
聘請老師(倩先生)

Quest. Do you know of a good teacher that I can engage?
你知道有什麼好的老師可以請過來嗎?
Lí chai ū hó ê sian-siⁿ thang chhiàⁿ bô?
汝知有好的先生通倩無?

Ans. I do.
有的。
Ū.
有。

Quest. Where, in Amoy or in Kulongsu?
在哪兒?廈門還是鼓浪嶼?
Tī toh-lo̍h①, sī tī Ē-mn̂g á-sī tī chí ② kó·-lōng-sū?
佇佗落,是佇廈門抑是佇此鼓浪嶼?
Tī tó-lo̍h, sī tī Ē-mn̂g á-sī tī chit-ê kó·-lōng-sū? 〖當今的講法〗
佇佗落,是佇廈門抑是佇即个鼓浪嶼?

Ans. There is one in Amoy, and also one in Kulongsu?
有一個在廈門,另有一個在鼓浪嶼。
Ē-mn̂g chi̍t-ūi, kó·-lōng-sū chi̍t-ūi.
廈門一位,鼓浪嶼一位。

Quest. Which one is the best?
哪一個比較好?
Toh-lo̍h chi̍t-ê khah hó?
佗落一个較好?

Ans. I think the one in Kulongsu is the best.
我想鼓浪嶼的會更好。
Phah-sǹg kó·-lōng-sū- -ê khah hó.
拍算③鼓浪嶼的較好。

Quest. What is his surname?
他姓什麼?
I sìⁿ sím-mi̍h?
伊姓甚物?

Ans. His name is Tan。
他姓陳。
Sìⁿ Tân.
姓陳。

Quest. How old is he?
他多大歲數了?
I ū kúi hè lâng?
伊有幾歲儂?
I kúi hè lâng? 〖當今的講法〗
伊幾歲儂?

Ans. About forty.
大約四十歲吧。
Iok-lio̍k si-cha̍p hè.
約略四十歲。

Qoest. Is he a good teacher?
他是個好老師嗎?
I iáu gâu kà mah?
伊猶敖教嗎?④
I chiâⁿ gâu kà m̄?〖當今的講法〗
伊誠敖教毋?

Ans. Yes, he knows his business well.
是的,他懂得很多。
Ū, i chīn ⑤ chai-iáⁿ.
有,伊盡知影。

Ans. Very well, can you tell him to come tomorrow morning?
很好!你能請他明早一起過來嗎?
Hó! Lí oē kah i bîn-á chá-khí lâi bōe?
好!汝會佮伊明仔早起來勿會?
Hó! Lí bîn-á-chài chá-khí ē kah i lâi bōe?〖當今的講法〗
好!汝明仔再早起會佮伊來勿會?

Ans. Yes, I will tell him to come.
是的,我會請他來。
Oē, góa chiah khì kiò i.
會,我則去叫伊。

【添注、說明】

①「toh-lo̍h」,當今佇廈門攏讀做「tó-lo̍h」,塞音無去。
②「chí」,即陣攏無儂按呢講囉,有儂講「chit」是「chí」+「一」的合音。
③「拍算」,佇往早的閩南話內底有幾落種含義。佇文中,是「認為」(想講會按怎按怎)。
④「伊猶敖教嗎?」即句句法聽著小可礙瘧礙瘧(gāi-gio̍h)。照上下文來看,本然拍算卜表示的意思是問講「照即陣的標準來講,對方敢猶算講是gâu教冊的儂?」
⑤ 真濟、真好、真知影、真愛食……Chiah-ê「真」,即陣,普通攏講做「chin」較濟,不而過,佇漳州海澄腔,頂沿的老大儂,猶咧講「盡(chīn)」較濟。

On buying furniture. 3.
購置傢具(蓄傢俬)

Quest. I want to get some furniture, where can I get it?
我想購些傢具,上哪兒買呢?
Góa beh hak ke-si, toh-lo̍h thang bóe?
我卜蓄傢俬,佗落通買?

Ans. You can buy it ready made in Amoy.
汝可以在廈門買現成的。
Ē-mn̂g ū piān thang khì bóe.
廈門有便①通去買。
Ē-mn̂g ū piān- -ê thang bóe.〖當今的講法〗
廈門有便的通買。

Quest. Is there going to be an auction?
哪裡將要舉辦拍賣會呢?
Ū só·-chāi teh-beh hoah lê-long bô?
有所在咧卜喝犁啷無?

Ans. Yes.
是的。
Ū.
有。

Quest. When?
什麼時候呢?
Tī sî?
底時?

Ans. Next Tuesday.
下禮拜二。
Kè lé-pài pài-jī.
過禮拜拜二。
Ē lé-pài pài-jī.〖當今的講法〗
下禮拜拜二。

Quest. Can I buy chairs, tables and bedsteads ready made?
能買到現成的桌椅、床板嗎?
Í-toh, bîn-chhn̂g, ū piān thang bóe bô?
椅桌、眠床,有便通買無?
Í-toh, bîn-chhn̂g, ū piān- -ê thang bóe bô? 〖當今的講法〗
椅桌、眠床,有便的通買無?

Ans. Yes, there are also wardrobes, bookcases, and sofas.
是啊,還有衣櫥、書架、沙發呢!
Ū, iā-ū tōa-tû, chheh-kè, siân-chhn̂g.
有,也有大櫥、冊架、禪床②。

Quest. Must the kitchen utensils be new or not?
廚房的傢具要新的嗎?
Chàu-kha ê ke-si, tio̍h sin á bô?
灶骹的傢俬,著新抑無?
Chàu-kha ê ke-si, tio̍h sin- -ê a̍h m̄?〖當今的講法〗
灶骹的傢俬,著新的抑毋?

Ans. The rice pan, small furnace, water jar, and dipper must be new.
鍋、火爐、水缸、水瓢,都要新的。
Tiáⁿ, hang-lô·, chúi-kng, chúi-chin, lóng tio̍h sin.
鼎、烘爐、水缸、水升,攏著新。
Tiáⁿ, hang-lô·, chúi-kng, chúi-chin, lóng tio̍h sin- -ê.〖當今的講法〗
鼎、烘爐、水缸、水升,攏著新的。

Quest. Is the Amoy furniture strongly made?
廈門的傢俱做工結實嗎?
Ē-mn̂g ê ke-si, chòe liáu iáu ióng mah?
廈門的傢俬做了猶勇嗎?
Ē-mn̂g ê ke-si, chòe liáu ū ióng bô?〖當今的講法〗
廈門的傢俬做了有勇無?

Ans.If you are willing to pay for it, it is strong.
肯花錢就做得結實。
Chîⁿ nā oē-chhut- -tit chiū ióng.
錢若會出得就勇。

Quest. Can good Canton matting be bought?
能買到好的廣東席子嗎?
Ū thang bóe hó ê Kńg-tang chhio̍h bô?
有通買好的廣東席無?
Ans. You must buy it in the stores.
你得到酒廊去買。
Tio̍h khì chiú-lóng bóe.
著去酒廊買。

【添注、說明】

①「廈門有便通去買」,當今的講法是「廈門有(做)便的通去買」,原句法無結構助詞「的」。毋知是原作者對語言句法瞭解無透,抑是講往早廈門話句法自底著按呢。
②「禪床」是中國自早有的古早物,拍算當時猶佫無「sofa」即號物。總是,即兩種物件外形看著卜siâng卜siâng。到kah路尾,佫過一个坎站,閩南話就有「沙發」即个新詞囉。

On boat sailing. 4.
駕船(駛船)

Quest. Have you sailed a boat?
你駕過船嗎?
Lí ū bat sái chûn bô?
汝有捌駛船無?

Ans. Yes, I am well up in that.
是的,我很瞭解。
Ū, góa chīn chai-iáⁿ.
有,我盡知影。

Quest. Where did you learn?
你從哪裡學的?
Lí tùi toh-lo̍h o̍h?
汝對佗落學?
Lí tùi tó-lo̍h o̍h- -ê?〖當今的講法〗
汝對佗落學的?

Ans. I learned when I was young.
我年輕的時候就學了。
Góa tùi siàu-liân chiū o̍h.
我對少年就學。
Góa tùi siàu-liân chiū o̍h lo·h.〖當今的講法〗
我對少年就學囉。

Quest. How do you beat?
(逆風時),你如何根據風向來掌舵?
Lí chai-iáⁿ khau-chûn?
汝知影敲船?

Ans. You go up against a head wind.
將船迎向對面襲來的逆風。
Ēng chûn khì chiū tùi-thâu-hong.
用船去就對頭風。

Quest. What is running before the wind?
什麼是順風行船?
Làu-chûn sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
落船是怎樣?

Ans. It is when a boat sails with the wind behind.
這是風在後頭刮,船順風而行。
Hong tùi āu-bīn, chûn-sin ti̍t cháu.
風對後面,船身直走。

Quest. Which is faster, beating or running?
逆風行船與順風行船,誰更快?
Khau-chûn, làu-chûn, toh-lo̍h chi̍t-ê khah kín?
敲船、落船,佗落一个較緊?

Ans. Running is several times faster.
順風行船要快好幾倍。
Làu-chûn kúi-nā pē kín.
落船幾若倍緊。

Quest. Have you ever been in danger when you were out sailing?
你行船曾經遇到危險嗎?
Lí sái-chûn bat hong-hiám- -bô?
汝駛船捌風險無?

Ans. I was nearly drowned once.
有一次我險些落水而亡。
Góa ū bat chi̍t-pái hiám-hiám tiâm lo̍h chúi sí.
我有捌一擺險險沉落水死。

Quest. When a squall comes up what do you do?
起風的時候,你怎麼辦?
Hong-sî lâi, lí cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
風時來,汝怎樣?

Ans. I must take in sail, and look out.
我得收帆提防。
Góa tio̍h siu phâng tiuⁿ-tî.
我著收帆(篷)張弛。

On Guilds. 5.
行郊

Q. Of all the guilds, which does the best business?
各行各業,哪個行業最興隆?
Cha̍p-tô· seng-lí, toh-lo̍h chi̍t tô· khah hó-chòe?
十途生理,佗落一途較好做?

A. I think the tea guild.
應該是做茶的。
Phah-sǹg tê chit tô· khah hó-chòe.
拍算茶即途較好做。

Q. Have the guilds any rules?
各行業有什麼規矩嗎?
Cha̍p-tô· ū sím-mi̍h kui-kú mah?
十途有甚物規矩嗎?
Cha̍p-tô· ū sím-mi̍h kui-kú bô?〖當今的講法〗
十途有甚物規矩無?

A. Yes. The people of the same guild often meet together to discuss matters.
是的,同行之間常常會在一起討論。
Ū, siâng-tô· ê seng-lí siông-siông ū chòe-tui saⁿ gī-lūn.
有,siâng途的生理常常有做堆叁議論。

Q. Where do he members of a guild meet to discuss?
同行業的,都聚集在哪討論呢?
Siâng-tô· ê seng-lí chū-chi̍p toh-lo̍h saⁿ gī-lūn?
Siâng途的生理聚集佗落叁議論?

A. Sometimes in their public rooms, and sometimes in a business house.
有時在他們的會館,有時在行郊。
Ū-sî tī hōe-koán, iā ū-sî tī hâng-lāi.
有時佇會館,也有時佇行內。

Q. Are. then any expenses connected with entering a guild?
嗯,那麼想要進入某個行業需要花一些經費嗎?
Beh ji̍p hit tô· ê seng-lí tio̍h khai sím-mi̍h só·-hùi bô?
卜入彼途的生理著開甚物所費無?

A. Yes.
是的。
Ū.
有。
Hēⁿ lah.〖當今的講法〗
喺啦。

Q. What expenses are there?
需要花銷什麼呢?
Ū sím-mi̍h só·-hùi?
有甚物所費?

A. Expenses connected with the worship of idols, and law expenses.
祭祀的花銷,以及打點衙門的花銷。
Kèng sîn ê só·-hùi, gê-mn̂g ê só·-hùi.
供神的所費,衙門的所費。

Q. In case of trouble must all the members of a guild help each other?
如若碰到麻煩事,同行的需要互相幫助嗎?
Nā ū kan-khó· ê sū, siâng tô· ê lâng lóng tio̍h chhut-thâu mah?
若有艱苦的事,siâng途的儂攏著出頭嗎?
Nā ū kan-khó· ê sū, siâng tô· ê lâng lóng tio̍h chhut-thâu m̄?〖當今的講法〗
若有艱苦的事,siâng途的儂攏著出頭毋?

A. Yes.
是的。
Tio̍h.
著。

On trade. 6.
貿易(1)

Q. Is trade good now in Amoy?
當前在廈門,生意好做嗎?
Hiān-sî Ē-mn̂g ê seng-lí hó-chòe mah?
現時廈門的生理好做嗎?
Hiān-sî Ē-mn̂g ê seng-lí hó-chòe bô?〖當今的講法〗
現時廈門的生理好做無?

A. Not very good.
不太好做。
Bô kàu jōa hó-chòe.
無夠偌好做。

Q. Why?
為什麼?
In-ūi siáⁿ-sū?
因為啥事?
Ūi sím-mi̍h〖當今的講法〗
為甚物?

A. People have less money, so they are more saving in their expenditure.
人們手頭比較沒錢,所以他們開支也較為節省。
Lâng khah bô chîⁿ, bóe-bōe khah lî.
儂較無錢,買賣較厘。

Q. Is there any other reason?
還有其它原因嗎?
Iā ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t-mi̍h iân-kò·?
也有甚物別物緣故?
Iá ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t-mi̍h iân-kò·?〖當今的講法〗
猶有甚物別物緣故?

A. Because the customs dues are heavy.
由於海關稅費重。
In-ūi sè-lî-hiòng tāng.
因為稅厘餉重。

Q. Where the trading junks more numerous in former years?
早年商船多嗎?
Chá-nî siong-chûn khah chōe bô?
早年商船較濟無?

A. Very much more.
非常多。
Put-chí khah chōe.
不止較濟。
Put-chí chōe.〖當今的講法〗
不止濟。

Q. With what places did they trade.
他們在什麼地方做貿易?
Kiâⁿ sím-mi̍h káng-kha?
行甚物港骹?

A. Tientsin, Newchwang, Shangtung and other ports.
天津、牛莊、山東和其它港口。
Thian-chin, Giû-chong, Soaⁿ-tang, koh pa̍t káng-kha.
天津、牛莊、山東,佫別港骹。

Q. Why are they fewer now?
為什麼現在比較少了?
Siáⁿ-sū hiān-sî khah chió?
啥事現時較少?
Chái-iūⁿ hiān-sî soah khah chió?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣現時soah較少?

A. The most of them have been wrecked, and there has been no money to build more.
大多數已殘破,沒有錢再重造。
Khah chōe sī kòng-phòa, bô chîⁿ thang koh chéng.
較濟是摃破,無錢通佫整。

Q. Any other reason?
其它原因呢?
Iā ū pa̍t-hāng ê iân-kò· bô?
也有別項的緣故無?
Iá ū pa̍t-hāng ê iân-kò· bô?〖當今的講法〗
猶有別項的緣故無?

A. Yes, because of the large number of steamers.
是的,因為冒出了很多蒸汽船。
Ū, in-ūi chīn chōe hé-chûn chhut-thâu.
有,因為盡濟火船出頭。

【添注、說明】

往過一兩百年中間,閩南話變第一濟的是詞彙,佫來是句法,語音較無啥變。舊早一寡詞彙,像「稅厘餉」、「火船」、「港骹」、「車頭」……即陣無儂會曉講ah。「買賣真厘」、「趁真厘」,現此時廈門罕咧聽著,就近的龍海猶有咧講。

On Trade (Continued). 7.
貿易(2)

Q. Is the trade of Amoy great or not?
廈門的貿易規模大還是小?
Ē-mn̂g seng-lí tōa á sòe?
廈門生理大抑細?

A. Middling. It is smaller than that of Shanghai.
中等,比上海來得小。
Tiong-pān, khah sū Siōng-hái.
中範,較輸上海。

Q. Is it greater than it used to be?
相比之前有所擴大嗎?
Pí chêng ū khah tōa bô?
比前有較大無?

A. I think it is greater.
我想應該是比較大。
Phah-sǹg khah tōa.
拍算較大。

Q. What countries does it trade with?
都與什麼國家交易呢?
Kap sím-mi̍h kok kau-koan?
佮甚物國交關?

A. With several countries, as England, Siam, Japan, and Cochin China.
與一些國家,如大英國、暹羅國(泰國)、日本以及安南(越南)。
Kap kúi-nā kok, chiū-sī Tāi-eng, Siām-lô, Ji̍t-pún, An-lâm.
佮幾落國,就是大英、暹羅、日本、安南。

Q. What is imported from England?
什麼東西是從大英國進過來的?
Tāi-eng kok chài sím-mi̍h hè lâi bōe?
大英國載甚物貨來賣?

A. Shirtings, cloth, camlets and velvets.
襯衫面料、呢、羽以及絨。
Sai-iûⁿ, nî, ú, jiông.
西洋、呢、羽、絨。
Sai-iûⁿ-pò·, nî-á-pò·, ú-se, jiông.〖當今的講法〗
西洋布、呢仔布、羽紗、絨。

Q. Do many buy dragon’s blood?
血竭的買賣量大嗎?
Hiat-kiat ū siau-thâu bô?
血竭有消頭無?

A. There is a sale for it in the druggists’ shops.
在藥店銷量比較大。
Io̍h-tiàm khah ū-siau.
藥店較有銷。

Q. Is there a sale for birds’ nests?
燕窩銷量怎麼樣?
Iàn-o ū siau bô?
燕窩有銷無?

A. A great many people buy them.
很多人買。
Chīn chōe lâng bóe.
盡濟儂買。

Q. Where do they come from?
從哪兒來的?
Tùi toh-lo̍h lâi?
對佗落來?

A. Chiefly from Siam.
大部分是暹羅(泰國)來的。
Tōa-poàⁿ sī Siām-lô lâi.
大半是暹羅來。

On Trade (Continued). 8.
貿易(3)

Q. Is business done by ready money, or on credit?
買賣較大宗的時候是使用現金還是賒賬?
Bóe-bōe khah chōe sī hiān-gûn á-sī sia-siàu?
買賣較濟是現銀抑是賖數?

A. Less by ready money than by credit.
較少用現金,記賬比較多。
Hiān-gûn khah chió, kì-siàu khah chōe.
現銀較少,記數較濟。

Q. If they won’t pay up, what is done?
如果他們不付錢,怎麼辦?
Kiám-chhái siàu m̄ hêng beh cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
Kiám-chhái數毋還,卜怎樣?

A. If they owe to a foreigner, complaint must be made to the Consul.
如果欠的是外國人,要投述的話就得通過領事。
Nā-sī khiàm gōa-kok-lâng tio̍h tâu léng-sū-koaⁿ.
若是欠外國儂,著投領事官。

Q. And what does the Consul do?
領事會怎麼做呢?
Léng-sū-koaⁿ cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
領事官怎樣?

A. The Consul sends a dispatch to the Tau-tai.
領事官就行一個照會至道台處。
Léng-sū-koaⁿ kiâⁿ chiàu-hōe hō· Tō-tâi.
領事官行照會①予道台。

Q. What is the greatest business of Amoy now?
當今廈門做得最大的生意是什麼?
Hiān-sî Ē-mn̂g tē-it tōa seng-lí sī sím-mi̍h?
現時廈門第一大生理是甚物?

A. Tea.
茶。
Tê.
茶。

Q. Which tea has the largest sale?
什麼茶銷量最大?
Sím-mi̍h tê siau khah tōa?
甚物茶銷較大?

A. The Formosa(Tamsui,編者案) Oolongs.
台灣淡水烏龍茶。
Tām-chuí O·-liông.
淡水烏龍。

Q. Is there any tea grown in the interior?
內陸長茶嗎?
Lāi-soaⁿ ū chhut tê bô?
內山有出茶無?

A. Yes.
是的。
Ū.
有。

Q. About when does it arrive in Amoy to be sold?
大約在什麼時候運抵廈門銷售?
Chha-put-to sím-mi̍h sî kàu Ē-mn̂g bōe?
差不多甚物時到廈門賣?

A. About the sixth mouth.
大約在六月的時候。
Iok-lio̍k la̍k- -ge̍h.
約略六月。

【添注、說明】

①照會:公文(文書)名。

On Trade (Continued). 9.
貿易(4)

Q. Used the tea trade of the interior to be great?
原先內山茶葉買賣做得很大嗎?
Pún-jiân soaⁿ-lāi tê seng-lí tōa mah?
本然山內茶生理大嗎?
Pún-jiân soaⁿ-lāi tê seng-lí chin tōa sī- -m̄?〖當今的講法〗
本然山內茶生理真大是毋?

A. In former years it was very large.
在前幾年是非常大的。
Chá-nî chīn tōa.
早年盡大。

Q. Why is it less now?
為什麼現在冷淡下來了?
Siáⁿ-sū chit-tia̍p khah bô?
啥事即輒較無?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chit-tia̍p khah bô?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣即輒較無?

A. Because there is no sale abroad.
因為沒有銷售到國外。
In-ūi gōa-kok bô siau-thâu?
因為外國無銷頭。

Q. Why is there no sale abroad?
為什麼沒有在國外出售?
Siáⁿ-sū chiah bô siau kè gōa-kok?
啥事chiah無銷過外國?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chiah bô siau kè gōa-kok?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣chiah無銷過外國?

A. Because the tea planters did not take care of their tea plants.
因為茶葉種植園主未能照顧好他們的茶樹。
In-ūi chai tê- -ê, bô chiàu-kò· tê-châng.
因為栽茶的,無照顧茶欉。

Q. Was there any other reason?
沒有其他原因嗎?
Iā-ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t-mi̍h in-toaⁿ?
也有甚物別物因端?
Iáu-ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t-mi̍h in-toaⁿ bô?〖當今的講法〗
猶有甚物別物因端無?

A. There was. They did not fire the tea immediately after picking.
有。他們採摘完之後沒有及時烘焙。
Ū, bán liáu bô liâm-piⁿ ké-pē.
有,挽了無liâm-piⁿ過焙。

Q. Was there any other?
還有其它的嗎?
Iáu-ū bô?
猶有無?

A. Yes. They did not change their plants often enough.
是的,再有就是他們並沒有按時更新茶樹。
Ū, tê-châng bô chiàu-sî oāⁿ.
有,茶欉無照時換。

Q. Why did not the tea growers look after their business.
茶農為什麼不能維繫好自己的生意?
Chai tê ê lâng siáⁿ-sū bô chiàu-kò· i ê seng-lí?
栽茶的儂啥事無照顧伊的生理?
Chai tê ê lâng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chiah bōe chiàu-kò· ka-kī ê seng-lí?〖當今的講法〗
栽茶的儂怎樣chiah勿會照顧家己的生理?

A. They did not like to put out their money on new plants.
他們不肯花錢添置新茶樹。
M̄-ài hē pún oāⁿ châng.
毋愛下本換欉。

On Trade (Continued). 10.
貿易(5)

Q. In what country has Tam-suy(Tamsui,編者案) tea the greatest sale?
淡水茶大部分銷往哪個國家呢?
Tām-chúi-tê khah chōe siau khì sím-mi̍h kok?
淡水茶較濟銷去甚物國?

A. America.
花旗國(美國)。
Hoe-kî kok.
花旗國。
Bí-kok.〖當今的講法〗
美國。

Q. How many times in a year do they pick the tea?
茶樹一年中一般能採摘幾期?
Tê-châng chi̍t-nî bán kúi pái?
茶欉一年挽幾擺?

A. I think three times.
我想有三期吧。
Phah-sǹg saⁿ pái.
拍算三擺。

Q. Which picking is the most valuable?
哪一期的茶最值錢?
Toh-lo̍h chi̍t chúi tē-it ta̍t-chîⁿ?
佗落一水第一值錢?

A. The first.
第一期的茶。
Thâu chúi tê.
頭水茶。

Q. Is there an export duty on tea?
茶葉出口課稅嗎?
Tê chhut-kháu ū hiòng bô?
茶出口有餉無?
Tê chhut-kháu ū sè-siu bô?〖當今的講法〗
茶出口有稅收無?

A. Yes.
是啊。
Ū.
有。

Q. Has the tea names?
茶種有取名嗎?
Tê ū hō-miâ bô?
茶有號名無?

A. Yes, each chop has a name.
有,每個品種都有名稱。
Ū, ta̍k jī-hō ū miâ.
有,逐「字號」有名。

Q. What names have they?
都有些什麼名稱呢?
Ū sím-mi̍h miâ?
有甚物名?

A. Oolong, Congou, Sou-chong &c.
烏龍,功夫茶,小種等等。
O·-liông, Kang-hu-tê, Sió-chióng, chiah-ê.
烏龍、功夫茶,小種,遮个。

Q. Have they any other names?
還有些其它的名稱嗎?
Iā ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t-mi̍h miâ?
也有甚物別物名?
Iáu-ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t-mi̍h miâ?〖當今的講法〗
猶有甚物別物名?

A. Yes, there is an endless number.
有啊,不勝枚舉。
Ū, kóng bōe liáu.
有,講勿會了。

Q. Will the tea trade in Amoy be lasting?
茶葉買賣在廈門能持久嗎?
Tê seng-lí tī Ē-mn̂g oē kú-tn̂g bōe?
茶生理佇廈門做會久長勿會?

A. I dont think it will. The Ceylon teas are superior.
我想可能不會。錫蘭(斯里蘭卡)茶更勝一籌。
Káⁿ bōe, Sit-lan tê khah iâⁿ.
敢勿會,錫蘭茶較贏。

On chartering ships. 11.
租船(贌船/Pa̍k-chûn:稅船、租船)

Q. Are there any ships in harbour now for charter?
現在港內有沒有什麼船隻可以包租的?
Chit-tia̍p káng-lāi ū chûn thang pa̍k bô?
即輒港內有船通贌無?
Chit-tia̍p káng-lāi ū chûn thang sè bô?〖當今的講法〗
即輒港內有船通稅無?

A. Yes, there are two sailing vessels and a steamer.
是的,有兩艘舺舨船和一艘輪船。
Ū, nn̄g chiah kap-pán-chûn, chi̍t chiah hé-hun-chûn.
有,兩隻舺舨船,一隻火薰船。

Q. How many tons in the steamer?
多少噸的輪船?
Hit chiah hé-hun-chûn hē tit jōa-chōe tan.
彼隻火薰船下得偌濟噸?

A. About fifteen hundred tons.
大約一千五百噸。
Iok-lio̍k chheng-gō· tan.
約略千五噸。

Q. What nationality is she?
是哪個國家的船?
Chûn sī sím-mi̍h kok ê?
船是甚物國的?

A. She is German.
德國的。
Tek-kok ê.
德國的。

Q. Is she a good sailer?
是條好船嗎?
Chûn-sin gâu cháu mah?
船身敖走嗎?
Chûn-sin ē gâu cháu bōe?〖當今的講法〗
船身會敖走勿會?

A. She steams twelve miles (English) an hour.
一小時能跑十二英里。
Chi̍t tiám-cheng kiâⁿ tit Eng-kok cha̍p-jī lí.
一點鐘行得英國十二里。
Chi̍t tiám-cheng kiâⁿ tit cha̍p-jī eng-lí.〖當今的講法〗
一點鐘行得十二英里。

Q. Where does the captain come from?
船長是哪裡來的?
Hé-tiúⁿ sī tah-lo̍h lâng?
夥長①是佗落②儂?

A. He is a German too.
他也是德國人。
Iā-sī Tek-kok lâng.
也是德國的儂。

Q. Does he sail his ship well?
善於駕船嗎?
Gâu sái-chûn mah?
敖駛船嗎?
Gâu sái-chûn m̄?〖當今的講法〗
敖駛船毋?

A. He does, he knows his business well.
他很能幹,很專業的。
Gâu, put-chí chai-iáⁿ.
敖,不止知影。

Q. How much will he charter to Japan for?
包租去到日本要多少錢?
Beh pa̍k khì-kàu Tang-iûⁿ tio̍h jōa-chōe chîⁿ?
卜贌去到東洋著偌濟錢?
Beh sè khì-kàu Tang-iûⁿ tio̍h jōa-chōe chîⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
卜稅去到日本著偌濟錢?

A. I will ask him.
我得問問看。
Góa chiah mn̄g i khoàⁿ.
我chiah問伊看。
Góa chiah mn̄g i khoàⁿ-māi.〖當今的講法〗
我chiah問伊看māi。

Q. When will you give me an answer?
你什麼時候能答覆我?
Tī sî tit góa siau-sit.
底時得我消息?
Tī sî hō· góa siau-sit.〖當今的講法〗
底時予我消息。

A. In the afternoon.
下午。
Ē-po·.
下晡。

【添注、說明】

①夥長:「hé-tiúⁿ」,往過中國造的船的船長。
②佗落:原文寫做「tah-lo̍h」,當今廈門島無即款腔口囉,毋過,漳州猶原是按呢講的。佇廈門島外集美區後溪鎮,有寡鄉社嘛是按呢講。

On chartering ships(Continude). 12.
租船(贌船:稅船、租船)

Q. Have you got the charter party ready?
租船協議準備好了嗎?
Pa̍k-chûn-jī siá piān bē?
贌船字寫便未?

A. It is not ready yet, but the draft is prepared.
還沒準備好,但草案已經準備了。
Kó chhòng piān, iáu-bē siá chiàⁿ.
稿創便,猶未寫正。

Q. How long will you charter the ship for?
船打算租多久呢?
Chûn beh pa̍k jōa kú?
船卜贌偌久?

A. Three months.
三個月。
Saⁿ ge̍h-ji̍t.
三月日。

Q. How much will you pay me each day for demurrage?
逾期的話,你每天支付我多少蹛期費?
Kè ān, múi ji̍t lí beh thiap góa jōa-chōe?
過限,每日汝卜貼我偌濟?

A. Thirty dollars a day.
一天三十塊。
Chi̍t ji̍t saⁿ-cha̍p kho·.
一日三十箍。

Q. Have you got ready your dunnage?
貨垫你備足了嗎?
That ân ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ, lí ū pī-pān kàu-gia̍h bô?
塞緪的物,汝有備辦夠額無?
That-tiām, lí lóng chhoân kàu-gia̍h a̍h bē?〖當今的講法〗
塞墊,汝攏攢夠額抑未?

A. Yes, in abundance.
是的,綽綽有餘了。
Ū, put-chí kàu-gia̍h.
有,不止夠額。

Q. In case of throwing some of the cargo overboard because of bad weather, who will repay us?
由於惡劣天氣,發生部分貨物墮海的事件,誰來賠償?
Nā hoān-hong, hè tiu chúi, chī-chūi tio̍h pê?
若犯風,貨丟水,是誰著賠?
Nā hoān-hong, hè chhia-lo̍h chúi, chī-chūi(siáⁿ-lâng) tio̍h pê?〖當今的講法〗
若犯風,貨捙落水,是誰(啥儂)著賠?

A. The insurance will pay.
保險支付。
Pó-ke tio̍h pê.
保家著賠。

Q. Is this a good time of the year to go to Tientsin?
現在是一年中去天津的好時節嗎?
Chit-tia̍p khì Thian-chin thiⁿ-sî ū ha̍h bô?
即輒去天津天時有合無?

A. It is not easy to go now, it is difficult to beat against a north wind.
現在並不好走,逆行的北風將難以應對。
Chit-tia̍p kan-kè khì, pak-hong oh khau-tiàu.
即輒艱計去,北風僫摳吊①。

Q. Are there any places we can run into for shelter?
有沒有一些可以避風的避風圬?
Nā hoān-hong, ū só·-chāi thang siu-oaⁿ bô?
若犯風,有所在通收垵②無?

A. Yes, there are several places.
是的,有好幾個地方。
Ū, kúi-nā só·-chāi thang koa.
有,幾若所在通擱③。

【添注、說明】

①摳吊:「khau-tiàu」,駛船摳風的時陣,捍舵(hoāⁿ-tōa)的動作。〖普通話〗[逆風行舟,按風向掌握船舵和船帆的動作]
②垵:「oaⁿ」,〖普通話〗[港灣]。收垵,[進港灣靠岸]。
③擱:「koa」,臨時停靠。

On chartering ships(Continude). 13.
租船(贌船:稅船、租船)

Q. Where is the shipping office?
航運辦公室在哪兒?
Chûn-thâu-pâng tī toh-lo̍h?
船頭①房佇佗落?

A. The first room on the right.
右手邊第一間。
Chiàⁿ-chhiú-pêng thâu chi̍t keng.
正手爿頭一間。

Q. Is the shipping clerk in?
管船務的人在不在?
Koán chûn-thâu- -ê, ū tī- -leh bô?
管船頭的,有佇咧無?

A. He has just gone on board ship.
他剛剛上船去了。
Tú-á lo̍h-chûn khì.
拄仔落船去。

Q. How many are now consigned to this firm?
現在有多少人與這家船務公司掛勾呢?
Chit-tia̍p jōa-chōe chûn lâi oá chit keng hâng?
即輒偌濟船來倚即間行?

A. Six or seven steamers, and four or five sailing ships.
六七艘蒸汽船和四五艘舺舨船。
La̍k chhit chiah hé-chûn, sì gō͘ chiah kap-pán.
六七隻火船,四五隻舺舨。

Q. Is this a good business firm?
這是一家很好的企業?
Chit keng hâng gâu chòe seng-lí mah?
即間行敖做生理嗎?
Chit keng hâng gâu chòe seng-lí hehⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
即間行敖做生理喺?

A. Yes. very: they are very good at buying and disposing of goods.
是的,很在行。他們很善於兜攬生理。
Put-chí oē, gâu chio-bóe chio-bōe.
不止會,敖招買招賣。

Q. Does the shipping clerk know how to draw up a bottomry bond?
管船務的,知道怎麼寫抵押借款契約嗎?
Koán chûn-thâu- -ê, oē-hiáu-tit siá thai-chioh-jī mah?
管船頭的,會曉得寫胎借②字嗎?
Koán chûn-thâu- -ê, oē-hiáu-tit siá thai-chioh-jī bōe?〖當今的講法〗
管船頭的,會曉得寫胎借字勿會?

A. Yes, he has already done so several times.
是的,他已經做過好多次。
Oē, i bat chhòng kúi-nā pái.
會,伊捌創幾若擺。

Q. Who are the agents for this ship?
誰是這艘船的掛靠代理人?
Chit chiah chûn oá toh-lo̍h chi̍t keng hâng?
即隻船倚佗落一間行?

A. Messrs Tait & Co. are the agents.
掛靠在德記洋行。
Oá Tek-kì.
倚德記。

Q. Are there many ships not chartered now?
有許多船隻還沒有包租是嗎?
Hiān-sî ū chōe chûn bē pa̍k mah?
現時有濟船未贌嗎?
Hiān-sî ū chōe-chōe chûn bē pa̍k hehⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
現時有濟濟船未贌喺?

A. Yes, there are several.
是的,有幾艘。
Ū, ū kúi-nā chiah.
有,有幾若隻。

【添注、說明】

①船頭,船隻的總稱。船頭行,做船務生理的企業(團體抑是個體戶)。船頭房,船務船運辦公室。
②胎借:thai-chioh,【普通話】[抵押貸款]。

On chartering ships(Continude). 14.
租船(贌船:稅船、租船)

Q. Is this ship A1?
這艘船是上等一的嗎?
Chit chiah chûn sī siōng-téng it mah?
即隻船是上等一嗎?
Chit chiah chûn sī siōng-téng-it- -ê m̄?〖當今的講法〗
即隻船是上等一的毋?

A. No, it is B1.
不,是二等一的。
M̄-sī, sī jī-téng-it- -ê.
毋是,是二等一。

Q. Are this ship’s papers all right?
這艘船的牌照證件合乎程序嗎?
Chit chiah chûn ê chûn-pâi ū chiàu hoat-tō· bô?
即隻船的船牌有照法度無?

A. Yes, everything is in order.
是的,一切都是按規矩辦的。
Ū, ta̍k-hāng chiàu hoat-tō·.
有,逐項照法度。

Q. Has the captain written up his log-book every day?
船長每天都寫航海日誌嗎?
Hé-tiúⁿ kiâⁿ-chûn ê ji̍t-kì ū ta̍k ji̍t siá bô?
夥長行船的日記有逐日寫無?

A. Yes, it has been thoroughly kept up.
是的,從不落下。
Ū, kì liáu chin siông-sè.
有,記了真詳細。

Q. Why is she flying the yellow flag.
它幹嗎懸掛黃旗?
Ûi-bé seng n̂g-kî sī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
桅尾升黃旗是甚物意思?

A. Because she has come from a port where there was cholera.
因為船是來自一個發生霍亂的港口。
Chûn tùi chhut-káng ū làu-thò·-chèng.
船對出港有落吐症。
Chûn chêng chhut-káng tio̍h ū làu-thò·-chèng.〖當今的講法〗
船從出港著有落吐症。

Q. Did she have a pilot when she was coming in?
船進港時是否需要領航?
Chûn ji̍p-káng ū kiò pàng-káng bô?
船入港有叫放港無?

A. No, the captain brought her in himself.
沒有,船長自己駕馭。
Bô, hé-tiúⁿ ka-kī sái.
無,夥長家己駛。

Q. How many passengers has she brought?
載了多少旅客?
Ū chài jōa-chōe kheh lâi?
有載偌濟客來?

A. A hundred and fifty or sixty.
一百五、六十人。
Pah gō· la̍k lâng.
百五、六儂。

Q. Where do they come from.
從哪裡來?
Tùi toh-lo̍h lâi?
對佗落來?

A. The most are from Penang and Singagore.
大多來自檳城和新加坡。
Khah chōe tùi Pin-nn̂g-sū, Si̍t-la̍t lâi.
較濟對檳榔嶼、實叻來。

Q. What is the fare from Amoy to Singapore?
從廈門到新加坡,票價多少?
Ē-mn̂g kàu Si̍t-la̍t chûn-sè jōa-chōe?
廈門到實叻,船稅偌濟?

A. At times from four or five dollars, at others, six or seven.
有時四五塊(美元),有時六七塊。
Ū-sî sì gō· kho·, ū-sî la̍k chhit kho·.
有時四五箍,有時六七箍。

On Insurance 15.
保險【1】(保家【1】)

Q. How many kinds of insurance are there?
問:有哪些保險種類呢?
Pó-ke ū kúi hō?
問:保家有幾號①?
Pó-ke ū kúi chióng?〖當今的講法〗
保家有幾種?

A. There are three kinds, viz, life, fire and marine.
答:有三種,即生活,消防和航海。
Ū saⁿ hō, chiū-sī pó sìⁿ-miā, pó hé-sio, pó chûn.
應:有三號,就是保性命,保火燒,保船。

Q. Is there an insurance office in Amoy?
問:在廈門,有保險機構嗎?
Ē-mn̂g ū pó-ke-koán bô?
問:廈門有保家館無?

A. Yes, every firm is an agency.
答:是的,每個公司(行)都有一個機構。
Ū, ta̍k keng hâng oē pó.
應:有,逐間行會保。

Q. What is premium?
問:何為保險費?
Pó-ke-gûn sī sím-mi̍h?
問:保家銀是甚物?

A. Money paid on account of insurance.
答:支付的保險行為的費用。
Chhut chîⁿ hō· i pó.
應:出錢去予伊保。

Q. What is the policy?
問:保險單是什麼?
Pó-ke-jī sī sím-mi̍h?
問:保家字是甚物?

A. Writing given as proof, that if there are losses they will be made good.
答:給出書面證明,如果有損失,他們將取賠償。
Chhut jī chòe pîn-kù, nā sit-lo̍h tio̍h pê.
應:出字做憑據,若失落著賠。

Q. What is meant by average?
問:何為海損(公攤部分)?
Kong-thoaⁿ sī sím-mi̍h.
問:公攤是甚物?

A. It is where the owners of a ship and cargo contribute towards defraying of loss incurred in saving the ship or cargo from total loss.
答:它是指船舶的所有者以及貨物的所有者雙方按一定的比例分攤費用,而該費用是指救助船舶或貨物的全部損失。
Put-lūn sī kiù chûn á-sī hè, bián-tit hō· i lóng bô- -khì, chiông-tiong só· khai ê só·-hùi lóng tio̍h phah-lo̍h kong, chûn-chú hè-chú chiàu hūn khui, che chiū-sī kong-thoaⁿ.
應:不論是救船抑是貨,免得予伊攏無去,從中所開的所費攏著拍落公,船主、貨主照份開,這就是公攤。

Q. How many kinds of average are there?
問:公攤有多少種?
Kong-thoaⁿ ū kúi hō?
問:公攤有幾號?

A. There are three kinds.
答:有三種。
Ū saⁿ hō.
應:有三號。

【添注、說明】

① 號:款、種。現此時「號」無儂講囉。「彼號物件」taⁿ變講做「hit-lō物件」。

On Insurance(Continued) 16.
保險【2】(保家【2】)

Q. What are these three kinds of average?
問:是哪三種公攤呢?
Chí saⁿ hō kong-thoaⁿ sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:此三號公攤是怎樣?
Chit saⁿ chióng kong-thoaⁿ sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
即三種公攤是怎樣?

A. The first is an average according to the value of the ship and cargo.
答:第一種,是按船舶及貨物的價值去公攤。
Thâu chióng, sī chûn-chú, hè-chú chiàu in kok pêng ê châi-pún lâi kong-thoaⁿ.
應:頭號,是船主、貨主照亻因各爿的財本來公攤。
Thâu-chi̍t-chióng, sī chûn-chú, hè-chú chiàu in kok-lâng ê châi-pún lâi kong-thoaⁿ.〖當今的講法〗
頭一種,是船主、貨主照亻因各儂的財本來公攤。

Q. What is the second?
問:第二種是怎麼樣呢?
Tē-jī sī sím-mi̍h?
問:第二是甚物?

A. The second is an average on ship only, or cargo only.
答:第二種就是僅僅(只管)攤船,或僅僅(只管)攤貨。
Tē-jī sī chheng-chheng thoaⁿ chûn, á-sī chheng-chheng thoaⁿ hè.
應:第二是清清攤船,抑是清清攤貨。

Q. What is the third?
問:第三種怎麼樣?
Tē-saⁿ sī sím-mi̍h?
問:第三是甚物?

A. It is where the owners of the ship are charged one third, and the owners of cargo two thirds.
答:就是船主攤三分一,貨主攤三分二。
Sī chûn-chú thoaⁿ saⁿ hūn it, hè-chú thoaⁿ saⁿ hūn jī.
應:是船主攤三分一,貨主攤三分二。

Q. Do some people set fire to their houses to get the insurance?
問:有沒人放火焚燒他們的房屋來獲取保險金?
Ū lâng pàng-hé sio chhù ài tit-tio̍h pó-ke-gûn mah?
問:有儂會放火燒厝愛得著保家銀嗎?
Ū lâng ē pàng-hé sio chhù thang niá pó-ke-gûn bōe?〖當今的講法〗
有儂會放火燒厝通領保家銀勿會?

A. Sometimes they do.
答:有時會。
Ū-sî ū.
應:有時有。

Q. Are they punished if they are discovered?
問:如果被發現,他們會受到懲罰嗎?
Nā chhâ- -tio̍h, pān chōe mah?
問:若查著,辦罪嗎?
Nā chhâ- -tio̍h, ē pān chōe bōe?〖當今的講法〗
若查著,會辦罪勿會?

A. Yes, certainly.
答:是的,那當然會。
Tek-khak tio̍h.
應:的確著!

Q. What punishment do they get?
問:將受到什麼樣的懲罰呢?
Tio̍h pān sím-mi̍h hō ê chōe?
問:著辦甚物號的罪?
Tio̍h pān sím-mi̍h chōe?〖當今的講法〗
著辦甚物罪?

A. They have to be imprisoned.
答:他們定當被囚禁。
Tio̍h siu-kaⁿ.
應:著收監。

Q. Do the insurance agents suffer loss?
問:做保險會蒙受損失嗎?
Pó-ke-koán oē si̍h-pún bōe?
問:保家館會蝕本勿會?

A. If they discover the offence in time, they don’t.
答:如果他們能夠早點發現毛病,就不會。
Nā chá chhâ hit ê mâu-pēng① chiū bōe.
應:若早查彼个毛病就勿會。
Nā chá chhâ-tio̍h mô·-pīⁿ, tio̍h bōe.〖當今的講法〗
若早查著毛病,著勿會。

【添注、說明】

①毛病:往過的儂唸做「mâu-pēng」,拍算官話來的。總是,即mái攏chiâu講做「mô·-pīⁿ」較濟。

On Invoices, account sales &c. 17
貨單、銷售數單

Q. Have any consignments come to your firm?
問:有什麼貨物掛你們行銷售嗎?
Ū chûn-thâu-hè oá lí hâng beh bōe bô?
問:有船頭貨倚汝行卜賣無?
Ū chûn-thâu-hè oá lín hâng beh bōe bô?〖當今的講法〗
有船頭貨倚恁行卜賣無?

A. Yes, do you wish to buy?
答:有啊,你想要買嗎?
Ū, lí sī ài bóe m̄-sī?
應:有,汝是愛買毋是?
Ū, lí sī beh bóe m̄-sī?〖當今的講法〗
有,汝是卜買毋是?

Q. Have you the invoices?
問:你有貨單嗎?
Ū hè-toaⁿ bô?
問:有貨單無?

A. Yes, there are several.
答:是的,有好幾單。
Ū kúi-nā chú.
應:有幾若主。

Q. What is the per-centage?
問:你抽幾個點?
Lí sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ thiu-thâu?
問:汝是怎樣抽頭?

A. Five per cent.
答:百分之五。
Khòng-ngó· thiu.
應:O五抽。

Q. How many bills of lading are there?
問:有多少提單呢?
Chài-hè-toaⁿ kiōng ū kúi tiuⁿ?
問:載貨單共有幾張?
Chài-hè-toaⁿ lóng-kiōng kúi tiuⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
載貨單攏共幾張?

A. Three in all.
答:共三張。
Lóng-kiōng saⁿ tiuⁿ.
應:攏共三張。

Q. When you have sold the goods will you send me an account-sale?
問:所有貨物銷完之後,您可否寄送一份銷售清單給我?
Hè bōe liáu, toaⁿ beh kià góa khì bô?
問:貨賣了,單卜寄我去無?
Hè bōe liáu, chheng-toaⁿ kià chi̍t tiuⁿ hō· góa, hó m̄?〖當今的講法〗
貨賣了,清單寄一份予我,好毋?

A. Yes.
答:好的。
Beh.
應:卜。
Hó.〖當今的講法〗
好。

Q. What is the net weight?
問:淨重多少呢?
Si̍t-tāng jōa-chōe?
問:實重偌濟?

A. Over a hundred catties.
答:百來斤。
Pah-gōa kun.
應:百外斤。

Q. Is the wharfage of this place heavy or light?
問:這裡的碼頭稅重嗎?
Chit só·-chāi lō·-thâu-sè tāng á khin?
問:即所在路頭稅重抑輕?

A. Not very heavy.
答:不太重。
Bô siáⁿ tāng.
應:無啥重。
Bōe sáⁿ tāng.〖當今的講法〗
勿會啥重。

Q. Can we hire lighters?
問:有駁船出租嗎?
Ū tōa-pok thang chhiàⁿ bô?
問:有大駁通倩無?

A. Yes.
答:是的。
Ū.
應:有。

Q. Is there a dock in Amoy?
問:廈門有沒有船塢?
Ē-mn̂g ū chûn-ù bô?
問:廈門有船塢無?

A. There are two.
答:有兩處。
Ū nn̄g ê.
應:有兩个。

On Customs and excise. 18.
海關與關稅(餉關 佮 關餉)

Q. What is a tariff?
問:什麼是關稅呢?
Chek-lē sī sím-mi̍h?
問:則例①是啥物?

A. A tariff is a list of duties levied, with their rates.
答:關稅就是規定哪些需要上稅以及上稅的稅率。
Chek-lē sī pò lâng chai sím-mi̍h tio̍h thiu-hiòng, koh só· thiu ê tāng khin.
應:則例是報儂知甚物著抽餉,佫所抽的重輕。

Q. What is the meaning of excise?
問:稅是什麼意思?
Hiòng sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:餉甚物意思?

A. The money levied by the customs on exports nd imports.
答:由海關對進出口予以課稅,所收的錢。
Chhut-ji̍p-kháu kè hiòng-koan phah.
應:出入口過餉關拍。
Chhut-ji̍p-kháu kè hiòng-koan, tio̍h phah-hiòng.〖補記〗
出入口過餉關,著拍餉。

Q. What is smuggling?
問:什麼叫走私?
Cháu-hiòng sī sím-mi̍h?
問:走餉是甚物?

A. It is when goods are kept from the notice of the customs, so that duties cannot be levied.
答:指在規避海關查驗而持有貨物,不被課稅的情形。
Ū mi̍h bô hō· hiòng-koan chai, m̄ hō· i phah.
應:有物無予餉關知,毋予伊拍(編者案:拍餉)。

Q. What is a manifest?
問:什麼是艙單?
Pò-hiòng-toaⁿ sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:報餉單是怎樣?

A. A declaration made to the customs when a ship enters the harbour.
答:船舶進入港口的時候,向海關遞交報關單。
Chûn ji̍p kháu, chiong hè-toaⁿ khì koan- -nih pò.
應:船入口,將貨單去關裡②報。
Chûn ji̍p kháu, chiong hè-toaⁿ the̍h-khì koan- -eh pò.〖補記〗
船入口,將貨單摕去餉關的報。

Q. What is abatement?
問:什麼是減稅?
Kiám hiòng sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:減餉是怎樣?

A. When goods are damaged through the ship getting into bad weather, or by a leakage, then there is abatement.
答:當船舶遭遇惡劣天氣沉沒或者滲漏,導致貨物被損壞,那麼就予以減免。
Chûn hoān-hong á-sī tiâm-lāu, hè phah-pháiⁿ, só·-í tio̍h kiám.
應:船犯風抑是沉漏,貨拍歹,所以著減。

Q. Has the ship got a clearance to unload yet?
問:船有卸貨許可證嗎?
Chûn ū kè-giām khui-chhng bē?
問:船有過驗開艙未?
Chûn the̍h-tio̍h kè-giām khui-chhng chèng-bêng a̍h-bē〖補記〗
船摕著過驗開艙證明抑未?

A. Long ago, and she has got her clearance to sail.
答:很久以前,就取得卸貨許可證得以航行。
Chīn kú lah, sòa kè-giām hòng-hêng.
應:盡久啦,紲過驗放行。
Chin kú ah lah, tio̍h-sī the̍h-tio̍h chèng-bêng chiah ē-thang kiâⁿ.〖補記〗
真久啊啦,著是摕著證明chiah會通行。

【添注、說明】

①規例:餉例(hiòng-lē),著是現代儂所講的「關稅規則/制度」。
②關裡:早前讀做koan- -nih,即个輕聲的「nih」,是表示方位,即陣台灣南部猶佫有按呢講,ah若佇福建罕咧聽著囉,攏變做「eh/ē」囉。

On Solvency and bankruptcy. 19.
有償付能力和破產(冗剩【liōng-sēng】 佮 破產)

Q. What is capital?
問:什麼是本金?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chiah sǹg sī pún-chîⁿ?
問:怎樣chiah算是本錢?

A. Capital is money set apart for purposes of trade.
答:本金就是指為進行貿易、買賣而撥出的專用的錢財。
Ēng chîⁿ chòe seng-lí, hit ê sī pún-chîⁿ.
應:用錢做生理,彼个是本錢。

Q. What is credit?
問:何為賒欠?
Sia- -lâng sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:賒儂是怎樣?

A. Credit is when goods are allowed to be take away previous to payment.
答:賒欠是指在付款前允許將貨物提前取走。
Mi̍h hō· i tāi-seng the̍h- -khì, che chiū-sī sia.
應:物予伊代先摕去,這就是賒。

Q. Is this firm solvent?
問:這間行郊具備償付能力嗎?
Chit keng hâng, gûn ū hù-chiok thang hêng- -lâng bô?
問:即間行,銀有富足通還儂無?
Chit keng hâng, chîⁿ-chúi ū liōng-sēng (liōng-siōng) thang hêng- -lâng bô?〖當今的講法〗
即間行,錢水有冗剩通還儂無?

A. No, it is insolvent.
答:不,它已無力償還。
Bô, bô thang hù-chiok.
應:無,無通富足。
Bô, bô thang liōng-sēng.〖當今的講法〗
無,無通冗剩。
Q. What is meant by failure of a firm?
問:什麼是行郊倒閉?
Hâng tó, sī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:行倒,是甚物意思?

A. When it is unable to meet its liabilities.
答:它已無法應付其債務的情形。
Seng-lí bōe ti̍t, chiū tó.
應:生理勿會直,就倒。

Q. Is the business of the bankrupt firm wound up?
問:行郊破產,清償嗎?
Hâng tó, ū lo̍h-chiat-phiⁿ hêng- -lâng bô?
問:行倒,有落折偏①還儂無?

A. They have paid only five per cent.
答:他們只償還百分之五。
Chí-ū hêng- -lâng khòng-ngó· chîⁿ nā-tiāⁿ.
應:只有還儂O五錢但定②。
Kan-ta hêng lâng khòng-ngó· chîⁿ nā-niā.〖當今的講法〗
干單還儂O五錢但定。

Q. Did the firm inform the public that they were going to fail?
問:行郊有否告知民眾將要破產?
Hâng beh tó, ū thong-ti hō· lâng chai bô?
問:行卜倒,有通知予儂知無?

A. No, the partners all fled.
答:不,合資人都跑掉。
Bô, ha̍p-hé ê lâng lóng cháu- -khì.
應:無,合夥的儂攏走去。

Q. Why did the firm fail?
問:行郊為什麼會倒閉?
Siáⁿ-sū hâng tó?
問:啥事行倒?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ hâng chiah oē tó?〖補記〗
怎樣行chiah會倒?

A. Because they speculated.
答:因為他們做生意過於投機冒險。
Seng-lí chòe lāng-hiám, chiah ū tó.
應:生理做弄險③,chiah有倒。

Q. When a firm fails what time must elapse till payment may not be demanded?
問:行郊倒閉後,必須要到什麼時候,債務才能消除。
Hâng tó, kàu tī-sî siàu chiah bōe thó?
問:行倒,到底時,數chiah勿會討?
Hâng tó, kàu tī-sî siàu chiah bōe-sái thó?〖補記〗
行倒,到底時,數chiah勿會使討?

A. payment may be demanded for two or three generations.
答:兩到三個世代前,還可以主張(追償債務)。
Nn̄g saⁿ tāi ê lâng iā oē thó- -tit.
應:兩三代的儂也會討得。

【添注、說明】

①落折偏:lo̍h-chiat-phiⁿ,「落折」,現代講「拍折」。
②nā-tiāⁿ:現時講nā-niā,普通話「而已」。
③弄險:lāng-hiám,「冒險」。

On Piloting. 20.
領航(放港)

Q. Are there pilots in Amoy?
問:廈門有引航(輪船)的人嗎?
Ē-mn̂g ū lâng teh pàng-káng bô?
問:廈門有儂咧放港①無?

A. Yes, there are both native and foreign.
答:有,有本地人也有外國人。
Ū, ū pún-tōe lâng, iā-ū gōa-kok lâng.
應:有,有本地儂,也有外國儂。

Q. Where do the natives pilot to?
問:本地引航的,可領到什麼地方?
Pún-tōe lâng pàng kàu toh-lo̍h?
問:本地儂放到佗落?

A. They pilot from outside to within Tai-tan.
答:他們從大擔島以外引到大擔島以內。
Tōa-toàⁿ-kháu pàng kàu ji̍p Tàⁿ.
應:大擔②口放到入擔。

Q. Where do the foreigners pilot to?
問:洋人引航者,引到什麼地方?
Gōa-kok lâng pàng kàu toh-lo̍h?
問:外國儂放到佗落?

A. From inside Tai-tan to the harbour.
答:從大擔島以內的海域,引到內海。
Tùi Tàⁿ-lāi pàng kàu lāi-káng.
應:對擔內放到內港。

Q. Are there sand banks in the outer harbour?
問:外港有沙洲嗎?
Gōa-káng ū soa-soàⁿ bô?
問:外港有沙線③無?

A. Yes, and there are rocks too.
答:是的,還有礁石呢!
Ū, iā-ū ta.
應:有,也有礁。

Q. Is the pilotage easy in Amoy, or not?
問:在廈門從事引航,容易還是困難?
Ē-mn̂g chit tiâu káng, hó pàng á-sī pháiⁿ pàng?
問:廈門即條港是好放抑是歹放?

A. It is easy if the pilot knows his business.
答:如果知道其中的門道,那將是很容易的。
Nā chai-iáⁿ chiū hó pàng.
應:若知影就好放。

Q. Are the pilot’s fees heavy?
問:引航費(價錢)高嗎?
Pàng-káng chîⁿ, chōe bô?
問:放港錢,濟無?

A. They depend on the size of the ships.
答:這得要看船舶的大小。
Khoàⁿ chûn tōa sòe chiah.
應:看船大細隻。

Q. Do steamers and sailing vessels all engage pilots?
問:蒸汽船以及舺舨船,都得要引航嗎?
Hé-hun-chûn, kap-pán-chûn lóng tio̍h chhiàⁿ pàng-káng bô?
問:火薰船、舺舨船攏著倩放港無?

A. Not certainly.
答:不一定。
Bô tiāⁿ-tio̍h.
應:無定著。

【添注、說明】

①放港:「pàng-káng」,領航、引航。
②大擔:「Tōa-tàⁿ」,大擔島。現此時,台灣講做「大膽島」,中國照原講做「大擔島」。
③沙線:「Soa-soàⁿ」,長長的沙坡,普通話「沙洲」。

On beggars. 21.
乞討(乞食①)

Q. How many kinds of beggars are there.
問:乞丐有幾種?
Khit-chia̍h ū kúi téng-hō?
問:乞食有幾等號?

A. There are several kinds.
答:有好幾種。
Ū kúi-nā hō.
應:有幾若號。

Q. Please mention one kind.
問:請舉一種說明吧。
Chhiáⁿ lí kóng- -chi̍t-hō.
應:請汝講一號②。

A. There are some who through poverty for a time become beggars.
答:有些是因為窮而暫時當乞丐。
Ū-ê in-ūi sòng, chiām-sî chòe khit-chia̍h.
應:有的因為喪,暫時做乞食。
〖補記〗
Ū-ê in-ūi sòng-hiong (sàn-hiong/sàn-chhiah/kêng), chiām-sî chòe khit-chia̍h.
有的因為喪兇(散兇/散赤/窮),暫時做乞食。

Q. Will you mention an other?
問:你可以再說一種嗎?
Lí oē koh kóng chi̍t hō bōe?
問:汝會佫講一號勿會?
〖補記〗
Lí ē-sái koh kóng- -chi̍t-hō bōe?
汝會使佫講一號勿會?

A. Some become so because of bad conduct.
答:有的是因為品行不端,而淪為乞食。
Ū-ê bô hoat-tō·, tì-kàu chòe khit-chia̍h.
應:有的無法度③,致到做乞食。
〖補記〗
Ū-ê bô chiàu hoat-tō·, tì-kàu chòe khit-chia̍h.
有的無照法度(無照起工、歹德行),致到做乞食。

Q. How many cash do they get a day?
問:他們一天能討到多少錢呢?
Chi̍t ji̍t ū choán jōa-chōe?
問:一日有賺偌濟錢?
Chi̍t ji̍t ū-hoat-thang choán jōa-chōe? 〖補記〗
一日有法通賺偌濟錢?

A. Some get more, others less.
答:有些人得到的多一點,有些人比較少。
Ū-ê choán khah chōe, ū-ê khah chió.
應:有的賺較濟,有的較少。

Q. Do they get enough to live on?
問:他們所得的,夠吃嗎?
Choán ū kàu chia̍h bô?
問:賺有夠食無?

A. Some have barely enough, others have to spare.
答:有的勉強能對付,有的還有剩餘。
Ū-ê lím-lím-á kàu, ū-ê ū chhun.
應:有的斂斂仔到,有的有賰。

Q. Do beggars smoke opium?
問:乞丐吸食鴉片嗎?
Khit-chia̍h ū chia̍h a-phiàn bô?
問:乞食有食鴉片無?

A. A great many of them do.
答:許多人有。
Chīn chōe lâng ū.
應:盡濟儂有。

Q. What do they do when they get sick and cannot beg?
問:當他們生病無法乞討時,怎麼辦呢?
Phòa-pīⁿ bōe chhut-lâi choán, chiū cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:破病勿會出來賺,就怎樣?

A. They die very wretchedly.
答:悲慘地死去。
Sī chhám-sí.
應:是慘死。

Q. Who buries them?
問:誰埋葬他們呢?
Chī-chūi bâi-chòng i?
問:是誰④埋葬伊?
Chī-chūi thang kā in tâi? (Chī-chūi tâi- -in?) 〖補記〗
是誰通共亻因埋(是誰埋亻因)?

A. If they die on the street the Tipau buries them, if in the camp, the head of the beggars.
答:如果死在路邊,則地保埋葬他們;如果死於乞丐寮,則丐首埋葬他們。
Sí tī lō·- -nih, sī tē-pó, sí tī iâⁿ- -nih, sī khit-chia̍h-thâu.
應:死佇路裡,是地保⑤,死佇營裡,是乞食頭。

【添注、說明】

①文頭「On beggars」,某儂我將伊翻做「乞食」,意思是「共儂討、共儂賺——會當食的物件」。「乞」是動作詞,「乞求」;「食」,是名詞,「食物」(chia̍h-mi̍h)。
②「請汝講一號」,從中「一號」讀輕聲較順喙。
③「bad conduct」原文翻做「無法度」,拍算是講儂——做儂、做代誌「無照法度」、「無照起工」,也著是普通話所講的「無法無天」,意思著是講儂「品行歹」。閩南有俗語話講「想卜好額,chiah會做乞食」,從中有包含著「挺而走險,最終淪為乞丐」(普通話)的暗義。現此時的閩南話,「無法度」kan-ta理解做「無辦法」。
④「是誰」,廈門腔自底講「chī-chūi」,不而過,現此時,講「siâng」(啥儂)佫較濟。
⑤「地保」:地方的保長。保:是古早時陣,鄉民户口的一種編製,十「甲」是一「保」。古早時的「保」、「甲」,kiau現此時的「村」、「社」(自然村)性質相siâng,大細無siâng。

On schools. 22.
學校(學堂)

Q. Has every village in China a school?
問:在中國每個村莊都有學校嗎?
Tiong-kok ta̍k siā ū o̍h bô?
問:中國逐社有學①無?

A. The large ones have, but not the small ones.
答:大的村莊有,但小村莊就沒有。
Tōa siā ū, sòe siā bô.
應:大社②有,細社無。

Q. Who gets up the schools?
問:是誰設立這些學校?
Sím-mi̍h lâng siat chiah-ê o̍h?
問:甚物儂設遮个學?

A. The people of the villages.
答:村裡的人。
Siā-lāi ê lâng.
應:社內的儂。

Q. What books do the scholars first read?
問:學生由什麼書讀起呢?
Ha̍k-seng khí-thâu tha̍k sím-mi̍h chheh?
問:學生起頭讀甚物冊?

A. They first read the trimetrical classic(Three Character Classic, Trimetric Classic 編者案).
答:他們由三字經讀起。
Sam-jī-keng tha̍k khí.
應:三字經讀起。

Q. Do they understand the meaning?
問:他們能明白其中的含義嗎?
In oē hiau-tit ì-sù bô?
問:亻因會曉得③意思無?

A. They do not understand it at all.
答:他們都不能理解。
Lóng bōe hiat- -tit.
應:攏勿會曉得。

Q. How many years must they study if they wish to be scholars?
問:如果他們想要成為有學問的人,得要學習多少年呢?
Nā beh chòe tha̍k-chheh-lâng tio̍h tha̍k kúi nî?
問:若卜做讀冊儂著讀幾年?

A. They must read fifteen years.
答:他們得讀十五年。
Tio̍h tha̍k cha̍p-gō· nî.
應:著讀十五年。

Q. After studying for fifteen yeasr will they know all the Chinese characters?
問:研學十五年後,他們就能懂得所有的漢字嗎?
Tha̍k cha̍p-gō· nî, jī lóng bat bô?
問:讀十五年,字攏捌④無?

A. This depends upon a man’s cleverness.
答:這得要取決於一個人的聰明程度。
Che sī chāi lâng ê pún-sū.
應:這是在儂的本事。

【添注、說明】

①學:o̍h,往過的教漢文的學堂,嘛講做『學仔(o̍h-á)』,台灣講「漢學仔(Hàn-o̍h-á)」。
②社:鄉社、庄社,普通話講做「自然村」。村,是第一細的行政區劃單位,一个「村」,拍算管幾个「社」。咱福建漳、泉所講的「社」,佮台灣原住民的「社」(部落)無共款。
③會曉得,從中即个「得」,自底讀做「tit」,不而過,即陣普遍攏退化,某儂有聽儂講過濟濟款的腔,有「lit」、「leh」、「eh」、「lih」、「chit」、「chih」。
④捌:原本記做「bat」,證明當時廈門是即个腔,這拍算是按漳腔來的。Ah若即陣,廈門攏講「pat」較濟,「pat」自底是泉州、同安腔。咱咧看遮个古早時的白話字文獻,通知影講當時的廈門話,比現此時的廈門話,佫較倚近漳腔。比論講「阮」(第一人稱複數),文獻記音攏是「goán」,反倒soah無「gún」;當時有講娘妳(niû-lóe:對老母的背稱),即陣攏無按呢講囉。

On Vagabonds.23
流浪漢(流民①)

Q. Why are they called vagabonds?
問:什麼原因稱之為流徒(流浪漢)?
Siáⁿ-sū kiò-chòe liû-bîn-á?
問:啥事叫做流民仔?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ kiò-chòe liû-bîn-á?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣叫做流民仔?

A. Because they have no settled abode.
答:因為他們流離失所。
In-ūi i bô tiāⁿ-tio̍h ê só·-chāi thang tòa.
應:因為伊無定著的所在通蹛。

Q. What class of men do they come from?
問:流浪漢本是什麼樣階層的人呢?
Liû-bîn pún sī sím-mi̍h téng-hō ê lâng?
問:流民本是甚物等號的儂?

A. From all classes.
答:各種階層的都有。
Cha̍p-sek lâng lóng ū.
應:十色儂攏有。

Q. How do they live?
問:如何度生活?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ tō·-oa̍h?
問:怎樣度活?

A. Some by doing a little work and others by stealing.
答:有些是做些雜活,有些則靠盜竊。
Ū-ê choè tām-po̍h kang, ū-ê thau-the̍h mi̍h.
應:有的做淡薄工,有的偷摕物。

Q. Do they ever turn to be honest men?
問:他們曾做過好人好事嗎?
Liû-bîn bat chòe hó-lâng mah?
問:流民捌做好儂嘛?
Liû-bîn bat chòe hó-lâng m̄-bat?〖當今的講法〗
流民捌做好儂毋捌?

A. Very few, about one per cent.
答:很少,約百分之一。
Chin chió, iok-liok chi̍t-pah ê ū chi̍t ê.
應:真少,約略一百个有一个。

Q. Do the mandarins take measures to restrain them?
問:官府有設法來約束他們嗎?
Koaⁿ-hú ū siat hoat iok-sok i bô?
問:官府有設法約束伊無?

A. They do not interfere with them at all.
答:他們(官府)是不干預他們(流民)的。
Lóng bô chhap.
應:攏無插。

Q. What is the result of their not interfering with them?
問:不干預的後果是怎樣?
Bô chhap chiū cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:無插就怎樣?

A. They are more daring in evil.
答:他們更加敢於做惡。
In khah káⁿ kiâⁿ-pháiⁿ.
應:亻因較敢行歹。

Q. If they break the law, what then?
問:如果他們觸犯法律,怎麼辦?
Nā hoān-hoat, tio̍h cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:若犯法,著怎樣?

A. The mandarins seize them, and punish them.
答:官府抓他們去服罪。
Koaⁿ-hú lia̍h khì pān-chōe.
應:官府掠去辦罪。

【添注、說明】

①流民:普通話講做「流浪漢」,貶義詞。時代咧變,社會咧變,語言嘛綴咧變,現此時,佇廈門罕咧聽著「流民」即个語詞囉。不而過,佇就近的龍海,猶佫定定有咧講。總是,即陣龍海所講的「流民」,詞義比往過有較闊,毋kan-na是「流浪漢」即个含義niā,嘛用來表示「歹品行的儂」、「佇社會頂走跳,為非sám作的鱸鰻」。

On shoes and stockings. 24.
鞋襪【1】(鞋、襪【1】)

Q. Do the Chinese all wear shoes?
問:中國人都有穿鞋子嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng lóng-chóng ū chhēng oê bô?
問:唐儂攏總有穿鞋無?

A. There are more that don’t than do.
答:不穿的比穿的還要多。
Chhēng- -ê khah chió, bô chhēng- -ê khah chōe.
應:穿的較少,無穿的較濟。

Q. Why don’t they wear any?
問:他們為什麼不穿?
Siáⁿ-sū chiah bô chhēng?
問:啥事chiah無穿?
In-hô chiah bô chhēng?〖補記〗
因何chiah無穿?

A. Because they are labouring men, and because, they have no money.
答:因為他們是幹粗活的人並且沒有錢。
In-ūi chho·-kang, koh bô chîⁿ.
應:因為粗工,佫無錢。

Q. What class of people least wears shoes and stocking?
問:什麼階層的人比較不穿鞋、襪?
Sím-mi̍h hō ê lâng khah bô chhēng oê-be̍h?
問:甚物號的儂較無穿鞋襪?

A. The farmers.
答:農民。
Choh-sit lâng.
應:作穡儂。

Q. Any other class?
問:還有其它類別的人嗎?
Iáu ū sím-mi̍h hō?
問:猶有甚物號?
Iáu ū sím-mi̍h khoán- -ê bô?〖當今的講法〗
猶有甚物款的無?

A. Yes, the labouring man.
答:嗯,勞工吧。
Ū, chiū-sī tng kang ê lâng.
應:有,就是當工的儂。
Ū, chiū-sī chòe-kang-á-lâng.〖當今的講法〗
有,就是做工仔儂。

Q. Do all the labouring men never wear shoes?
問:是否所有的勞工從來都不穿鞋?
Chho·-kang kiám lóng m̄-bat chhēng oê?
問:粗工敢①攏毋捌穿鞋?

A. If there is anything special going on they do.
答:一旦碰到有重要的事,他們是會穿的。
Nā ū iàu-kín ê sū, chiū chhēng.
應:若有要緊的事,就穿。

Q. What is considered special?
問:什麼才算是重要的事?
Sím-mi̍h sǹg sī iàu-kín?
問:甚物算是要緊?

A. Marriage, worshipping the idols, worshipping ancestors, visiting, all are special.
答:婚事、祭神、祭祖、走親戚,都是重要的。
Chhōa bó·, pài pu̍t, pài chó·, chòe lâng-kheh, lóng sī.
應:娶某、拜佛、拜祖、做儂客,攏是。

Q. Do they also wear stockings?
問:他們也穿襪子嗎?
Iā ū chhēng be̍h bô?
問:也有穿襪無?

A. They wear stockings when they wear shoes.
答:有穿鞋子的時候就穿襪子。
Nā ū chhēng oê, chiū chhēng be̍h.
應:若有穿鞋就穿襪。

Q. How many kinds of shoes are there?
問:鞋子有多少種?
Oê ū jōa-chōe hō?
問:鞋有偌濟號②?

A. There are several kinds.
答:有好多種。
Kúi-nā hō.
應:幾若號。

【添注、說明】

①敢:原文白話字讀「kiám」,拍算本字是「敢」。詞語「kiám-chhái」著是另外的一个例證。「粗工敢攏毋捌穿鞋?」即句話,即陣的閩南語較濟讀做「Chho·-kang kám lóng m̄-bat chhēng oê?」
②號:往過福建話,「號」的含義是「種、項、款」。傳(thn̂g)到現此時的閩南語,kan-ta賰「即號」(chit-hō/chit-lō)、「彼號」(hit-hō/hit-lō),賰的soah攏總無無去囉。

On Shoes and Stockings (Continued) 25.
鞋襪【2】(鞋、襪【2】)

Q. What kinds of shoes are there?
問:鞋子有什麼品種的?
Oê ū sím-mi̍h hō?
問:鞋有甚物號?
Oê ū sím-mi̍h khoán- -ê?〖當今的講法〗
鞋有甚物款的?

A. Satin shoes, cotton shoes, wooden soled shoes, shoes with sharp upturned points and narrow sole,( Tartar shoes), Canton shoes, women’s shoes, and embroidered shoes.
答:緞鞋、布鞋、木屐鞋、滿清鞋(鞑靼鞋),廣東鞋,弓鞋,繡花鞋。
Toān oê, pò· oê, chhâ-kia̍h oê, boán-á oê, Kńg-tang oê, keng oê, siù oê.
應:緞鞋、布鞋、柴屐鞋、滿仔鞋,廣東鞋,弓鞋,繡鞋。

Q. What are shoes made of?
問:鞋是用什麼東西來做的?
Oê sī sím-mi̍h mi̍h chòe?
問:鞋是甚物物①做?
Oê sī ēng sím-mi̍h chòe- -ê?〖當今的講法〗
鞋是用甚物做的?

A. The uppers of some are made of satin, and some of cotton cloth.
答:鞋面有的用緞,有的用棉布料。
Oê-bīn ū-ê toān, ū-ê pò· .
應:鞋面有的緞,有的布。

Q. What are the soles made of?
問:鞋底是用什麼東西來做的?
Oê-tóe sī sím-mi̍h chòe?
問:鞋底是甚物做②?
Oê-tóe ēng sím-mi̍h chòe- -ê?〖當今的講法〗
鞋底用甚物做的?

A. Felt and leather.
答:氈(毡)和皮革。
Chiⁿ kap phê.
應:氈(毡)佮皮。

Q. Do the Chinese consider the shoemaker honourable or mean?
問:中國人認為鞋匠尊貴還是卑賤呢?
Tiong-kok lâng sǹg chòe-oê- -ê kùi-khì á-sī hā-chiān?
問:中國儂算③做鞋的貴氣抑是下賤?

A. Neither very honourable nor very mean.
答:既不是十分光榮,也不是十分卑賤。
Bô cha̍p-hun kùi-khì, iā bô cha̍p-hun hā-chiān.
應:無十分貴氣,也無十分下賤。

Q. Can the shoemaker go in for the examination for degrees?
問:鞋匠可以參加科舉考試嗎?
Oē chhut-khó tit mah?
問:會出考得嗎?
Oē chhut-khó tit bōe?〖補記〗
會出考得勿會?

A. He certainly can.
答:當然可以。
Tek-khak oē.
應:的確會。

【添注、說明】

①原文寫做「鞋是甚物物做」,從中「物」是單音節詞,當今較慣勢講做雙音節詞「物件」。往過單音節詞較濟,即mái較少。

②原文寫做「鞋底是甚物做」,當今較攏慣勢講做「鞋底是甚物做的」,往過,句尾的語助詞比當今較少。

③「中國儂算做鞋的貴氣抑是下賤?」即句話內底即个「算」,意思是「認為、當做講……」。

On the Weather. 26.
天氣(天時)

Q. What is the weather like in Amoy?
問:廈門的氣候怎麼樣呢?
Ē-mn̂g thiⁿ-sî cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:廈門天時怎樣?

A. Pretty good.
答:很好。
Iáu hó.
應:猶好。
Bōe bái lah.〖當今的講法〗
勿會 禾黑 啦。

Q. Have you cold and hot?
問:感覺冷熱分明嗎?
Ū koâⁿ ū joa̍h bô?
問:有寒有熱無?

A. Yes.
答:會的。
Ū.
應:有。

Q. When is it cold, and when is it hot?
問:什麼時候冷,什麼時候熱?
Tī sî koâⁿ, tī sî joa̍h?
問:底時寒,底時熱?

A. It is very hot in the sixth and seventh months, and is very cold in the first and second.
答:六七月的時候很熱,一二月的時候很冷。
La̍k chhit ge̍h chīn joa̍h, chiaⁿ jī ge̍h chīn koâⁿ.
應:六七月盡熱,正二月盡寒。

Q. What about the rains?
問:下雨的情況是怎樣?
Lūn lo̍h-hō· chiáⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:論落雨怎樣?

A. They are very heavy in the spring, and slight in the autumn?
答:春天很經常下雨,秋天較少嘛!
Chhun-thiⁿ chīn chōe, chhiu-thiⁿ khah chió mah?①
應:春天盡濟,秋天較少。
Chhun-thiⁿ chīn chia̍p, chhiu-thiⁿ khah chió.〖補記〗
應:春天盡捷,秋天較少。

Q. Have you ever had snow and ice in Amoy?
問:廈門有過冰、雪天氣嗎?
Ē-mn̂g bat kian-peng lo̍h-seh bô?
問:廈門捌堅冰落雪無?

A. I have seen snow once in thirty years.
答:三十年來我見過一次。
Saⁿ-cha̍p nî, góa ū khoàⁿ-kìⁿ chi̍t pái seh.
應:三十年,我有看見一擺雪。

Q. Is there a great deal of sickness in the summer?
問:夏天的時候,疾病很多嗎?
Joa̍h-thiⁿ, lâng kāu pīⁿ-thiàⁿ mah?
問:熱天,儂厚病疼嗎?
Joa̍h-thiⁿ, lâng ē kāu pīⁿ-thiàⁿ bōe?〖當今的講法〗
熱天,儂會厚病疼勿會?

A. Not so much as in the autumn.
答:那不及秋天了。
Put-pí chhiu-thiⁿ.
應:不比秋天。

Q. How is it there is so much sickness then?
問:怎麼有那麼多的疾病呢?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ hit-tia̍p chiah kāu pīⁿ-thiàⁿ?
問:怎樣彼輒chiah厚病疼?

A. People do not know how to take care of themselves.
答:人們不懂得如何照顧好自己。
Lâng m̄-chai thang chiàu-kò· .
應:儂毋知通照顧。
Lâng m̄-chai thang kò· sin-miā.〖當今的講法〗
儂毋知通顧身命。

【添注、說明】

①即句是應儂問的話。看原文的英文句尾、廈語白話字句尾,攏拍問號;ah下底的漢文句,soah照原寫做「春天盡多秋天較少」,明顯是陳述句,毋是倒問儂的口氣。所以,我咧想,拍算是作者或者印刷廠一時賺誤(tāⁿ-ngō·)寫毋去。

On renting of a house. 27.
出租房屋(稅厝)

Q. Is that house yours?
問:那是你的房子嗎?
Hit keng chhù sī lí ê mah?
問:彼間厝是汝的嗎?
Hit keng chhù sī lí ê m̄?〖當今的講法〗
彼間厝是汝的毋?

A. Yes, it is mine.
答:是的,是我的。
Sī, góa ê.
應:是,我的。

Q. Do you wish to let?
問:要出租嗎?
Beh sè- -lâng m̄?
問:卜稅儂毋?

A. Yes.
答:要。
Beh.
應:卜。

Q. What is the rent?
問:租金怎樣呢?
Beh jōa-chōe gûn?
問:卜稅偌濟銀?

A. Do you want it for a long or a short period?
答:你要長租還是租暫時的?
Lí beh tn̂g sè, á-sī beh chiām sè?
應:汝卜長稅,抑是卜暫稅?

Q. How many will you let by the month?
問:包月的,你想租多少?
Sǹg ge̍h beh jōa-chōe?
問:算月卜偌濟?

A. Thirty five dollars a month.
答:一個月三十五塊。
Chi̍t ge̍h-ji̍t saⁿ-cha̍p-gō· kho· .
應:一月日三十五箍。

Q. How much by the year?
問:包年的,多少?
Nā sǹg nî beh jōa-chōe?
問:若算年卜偌濟?

A. I will let it to you for three hundred and eighty dollars for the year.
答:我租你一年三百八十塊。
Choân nî sǹg lí saⁿ-pah-poeh kho· .
應:全年算汝三百八箍①。
Choân nî sǹg lí saⁿ-pah-poeh.〖補記〗
全年算汝三百八。

Q. Does the house require repairing?
問:房子需要維修一下嗎?
Chhù tio̍h siu-lí mah?
問:厝著修理嗎?
Chhù tio̍h siu-lí m̄-bián?〖當今的講法〗
厝著修理毋免?

A. It does a little.
答:要稍微處理一下。
Tio̍h sió-khóa siu-lí.
應:著小可修理。

Q. When will you call the workmen?
問:你什麼去請師傅來呢?
Tī sî beh kiò sai-hū lâi?
問:底時卜叫師傅來?

A. I will send for them on Monday.
答:禮拜一就派人來。
Pài-it chiū khì kiò.
應:拜一就去叫。

Q. When can I enter?
問:我什麼時候能夠入住?
Tī sî oē hù góa ji̍p-chhù?
問:底時會赴我入厝?②
Tī sî oē hù góa poaⁿ- -ji̍p-khì?〖當今的講法〗
底時會赴我搬入去?

A. In another week you can.
答:間隔一個星期就可以了。
Thêng chi̍t lé-pài chiū hù lí.
應:停一禮拜就赴汝。③
Thêng- -chi̍t-lé-pài tio̍h ē hù- -lí ah.〖當今的講法〗
停一禮拜著會赴汝ah。

【添注、說明】

①「三百八箍」,若即陣佇廈門島,罕得聽儂按呢講,較濟講做「三百八」。毋kú,佇島外海滄(Hái-chhng)的新垵(Sin-oaⁿ)、霞陽(Hê-iûⁿ),的確講做「三百八箍」。
②「入厝」即詞,若卜照現此時的話來講,是「新厝落成儀式」。 往過,拍算猶佫有「搬入去新厝徛」的意思。
③「停一禮拜就赴汝」即句話,從中這「一禮拜」若是唸輕聲,會較順喙;「就赴汝」即句,若卜按即陣的話來講,拍算換講做「著會赴汝ah」會較順,儂會聽較有。當時的句尾語氣助詞拍算較少。另外,「停一禮拜」即句,嘛會使講「間禮拜」(唸做「kàiⁿ lé-pài」,照讀,毋免讀輕聲),拍算自本是同安腔來的。

On Thunder and lightning. 28.
雷電(雷公爍爁)

Q. What time of the year are thunder and lightning most common in Amoy?
問:在廈門,每年什麼時候雷電是最常見的?
Tī Ē-mn̂g sím-mi̍h sî khah ū lûi tân?
問:佇廈門甚物時較有雷霆?

A. In the spring and summer time.
答:春天和夏天的時候。
Chhun-thiⁿ hē-thiⁿ.
應:春天、夏天。

Q. Does it ever thunder in the winter?
問:冬天會不會打雷?
Tang-thiⁿ sî bat lûi tân mah?
問:冬天時捌雷霆嗎?
Tang-thiⁿ sî bat lûi tân (tân-lûi) m̄-bat?〖當今的講法〗
冬天時捌雷霆(霆雷)毋捌?

A. Ver seldom.
答:很少見。
Chīn hán- -tit.
應:盡罕得。

Q. What do the Chinese say when a person is killed with lightning?
問:人被閃電劈死,中國人是怎麼說的?
Sih-nà sut sí lâng, Tn̂g-lâng kóng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:爍爁摔死儂,唐儂講怎樣?

A. They think he is killed by the thunder.
答:他們認為那是被雷打死。
Chiàu in phah-sǹg sī hō· lûi phah- -sí.
應:照亻因拍算是予雷拍死。

Q. Why do they think he is killed?
問:他們認為被打死是什麼原因呢?
In phah-sǹg sī sím-mi̍h iân-kò· phah- -sí?
問:亻因拍算是甚物緣故拍死?

A. Because he is wicked.
答:因為作惡。
In-ūi pháiⁿ-sim.
應:因為歹心。

Q. What do the Chinese believe thunder to be?
問:中國人認為雷電是什麼呢?
Tn̂g-lâng phah-sǹg lûi sī sím-mi̍h khoán?
問:唐儂拍算雷是甚物款?

A. They think it is a spirit, which they call the god of thunder.
答:他們認為它是神,稱它為雷神(雷公)。
Sǹg i chòe sîn, kió-chòe lûi-kong.
應:算①伊做神,叫做雷公。

Q. Do people worship it?
問:人們敬拜(膜拜)它嗎?
Ū lâng pài i bô?
問:有儂拜伊無?

A. They do occasionally.
答:偶爾也會啦。
Sam-put-sî ū.
應:三不時②有。

【添注、說明】

①「算」:拍算。想講是……
②「三不時」:三不五時。

On rebellion. 29.
反亂/造反(造反)

Q. Why do rebellions take place in the country?
問:為什麼國家會發生叛亂?
Kok-lāi ū-sî oē hoán-loān, sī in-ūi siáⁿ-sū?
問:國內有時會反亂,是因為啥事?
Kok-lāi ū-sî oē hoán-loān, sī in-ūi siáⁿ tāi-chì leh?〖當今的講法〗
國內有時會反亂,是因為啥代誌咧?

A. Because of the misgovernment of the mandarins.
答:因為官府弊政。
Sī tùi koaⁿ-hú tī-lí peh-sìⁿ bô chiàu hoat-tō· .
應:是對官府治理百姓無照法度。

Q. Have there been rebellions in Amoy?
問:廈門曾經有過叛亂嗎?
Ē-mn̂g bat hoán-loān mah?
問:廈門捌反亂嗎?
Ē-mn̂g pat hoán-loān m̄-pat?〖當今的講法〗
廈門捌反亂毋捌?

A. Yes, several.
答:是的,有好幾回。
Ū, kúi-nā pái.
應:有,幾若擺。

Q. What rebellions?
問:什麼叛亂?
Sím-mi̍h hoán-loān?
問:甚物反亂?

A. The Small Knife rebellion, and the Tai-peng rebellion.
答:小刀會起義,太平天國起義。
Sio-to hoán, tn̂g-mn̂g hoán.
應:小刀反,長毛反。

Q. How long did the Small Knife rebellion last?
問:小刀會叛亂持續了多久?
Sió-to ū jōa kú?
問:小刀反有偌久?

A. Just a half a year.
答:剛好半年。
Tú-tú poàⁿ nî.
應:拄拄半年。

Q. Did many perish in it?
問:死了很多人嗎?
Sí chōe lâng mah?
問:死濟儂嗎?
Sí chōe lâng bô?〖當今的講法〗
死濟儂無?

A. Only a few hundreds.
答:僅僅幾百人吧。
Ū kúi pah lâng nā-tiāⁿ.
應:有幾百儂但定。

Q. Were the leaders seized?
問:頭目抓到了嗎?
Hoán-thâu ū lia̍h- -tio̍h bô?
問:反頭有掠著無?

A. No, they escaped to Singapore.
答:沒有,他們逃往新加坡了。
Bô, cháu-khì Si̍t-la̍t.
應:無,走去實叻。

Q. How long is it since then?
問:那個時候距離今天有多久了?
Hit sî kàu taⁿ kúi nî?
問:彼時到當幾年?

A. Thirty six years.
答:三十六年。
Saⁿ-cha̍p la̍k nî.
應:三十六年。

Q. Did the mandarins learn a lesson by this rebellion?
問:官府從這次造反中得到教訓了嗎?
Hit ê hoán-loān koaⁿ-hú ū khah kéng-séng bô?
問:彼个反亂官府有較警醒無?

A. For a time only.
答:僅一段時間而已。
Chiām-sî nā-tiāⁿ.
應:暫時但定。

On Flowers. 30.

Q. Does the Fohkien province produce more flowers than the other provinces?
問:福建省產花比別的省更多嗎?
Hok-kiàn ū pí pa̍t séng chhut khah chōe hoe bô?
問:福建比別省有出較濟花無?

A. Perhaps it does.
答:可能是吧。
Káⁿ ū.
應:敢①有。
Káⁿ ū neh!〖補記〗
敢有呢!
Kán-ná ū neh!〖當今的講法〗
敢若有呢!

Q. What flowers does it produce?
問:產什麼花呢?
Chhut sím-mi̍h hoe?
問:出甚物花?

A. The white jessamine, camellia, cassia, sunflower.
答:茉莉,茶花,桂花,向日葵。
Ba̍k-nī, tê-hoe, kùi-hoe, hiòng-ji̍t-kûi.
應:茉莉,茶花,桂花,向日葵。

Q. Are the women fond of putting folwers in their hair?
問:婦人喜歡把鮮花插在他們的頭髮上嗎?
Hū-jîn-lâng ài chhah hoe bô?
問:婦人儂愛插花無?

A. Yes, rich and poor are all alike fond.
答:是的,不論貧富,都是一樣的喜歡。
Ū, hó-gia̍h siòng-hiong lóng pîⁿ-pîⁿ ài.
應:有,好額、喪兇攏平平愛。

Q. If they have no flowers what do they use?
問:如果沒有鮮花怎麼辦呢?
Nā bô chhiⁿ-hoe chhah sím-mi̍h?
問:若無生花②插甚物?

A. If they have no natural flowers they use artificial ones.
答:如果沒有鮮花,就插手工做的花(假花)。
Nā bô chhiⁿ-hoe, chhah se̍k-hoe.
應:若無生花,插熟花③。

Q. What are the artificial flowers made of?
問:假花是用什麼東西做的?
Se̍k-hoe sī sím-mi̍h chòe?
問:熟花是甚物做?

A. Some of pith, some of silk, some of chenille, and some of paper.
答:有些是蓪草的,有些是綢的,有些是絨的,還有一些是紙的。
Ū-ê chhó, ū-ê tiû, ū-ê jiông, ū-ê chóa.
應:有的草④,有的綢,有的絨,有的紙。

Q. Is it true that women dare not go out unless they have flowers in their heads?
問:婦人們沒有插花,不敢外出,真的這樣嗎?
Hū-jîn-lâng bô chhah-hoe, m̄-káⁿ chhut-mn̂g, ū-iáⁿ bô?
問:婦人儂無插花毋敢出門,有影無?

A. Yes, because without flowers they are as though they were in mourning.
答:是的,因為如果沒有插花,就像在服喪一樣。
Sī, in-ūi bô chhah-hoe sī chhin-chhiūⁿ tòa-hà.
應:是,因為無插花是親像帶孝。⑤

【添注、說明】

①「敢(káⁿ)」:大概,拍算是按呢,表示無確定的口氣。普通話「可能、也許、應該是」。現此時,少儂年罕咧按呢講囉。
②「生花(chhiⁿ-hoe / chheⁿ-hoe)」:自然生出來的花,植物花,正的花,毋是人造的「熟花」,普通話講做「鮮花」。
③「熟花」:人造花、假花。現此時罕咧聽著,攏講做「假花」較濟。
④「草(chhó)」:是「蓪草(thong-chhó)」。蓪草即通草,又叫做通脫木,是五加科灌木;原底發佇亞洲南部。中國古冊有記載,但是號名濟濟款,像明朝李時珍《本草綱目》寫講:「有細細孔,兩頭皆通,故名通草,即今所謂木通囉。今之通草,乃古之通脫木也」……蓪草,會當做紙,蓪草紙是做花的好材料。歷史記載,大清國的時代,蓪草透底是台灣出產,佫用船運來唐山。1830到1840年的骹兜,廣東海骹的所在,用蓪草紙畫圖真時行,佇外國銷路嘛真好,臺灣逐年上少也會當出口價值3萬箍的蓪草紙到廣東、福建。
⑤往過,佇閩南所在,婦人儂無插花,較無咧出門,這是民間的例俗。不而過,這拍算是封建社會的例俗,即陣有寡古例早著sài-sài無無去囉。

On The stars. 31.
星星(天星)

Q. What do the Chinese say about the stars?
問:關於星星,中國人是怎樣看待的?
Tn̂g-lâng lūn chhiⁿ kóng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:唐儂論星講怎樣?

A. There are several things may be said.
答:有好幾種說法。
Ū kúi-nā hāng thang kóng.
應:有幾若項通講。

Q. Do any believe that the stars have spirits?
問:有沒有認為星星本是有神的?
Ū lâng phah-sǹg chhiⁿ ū sîn bô?
問:有儂拍算星有神無?

A. A great many say they have.
答:許多人說有。
Chīn chōe lâng kóng ū.
應:盡濟儂講有。

Q. Do people worship them?
問:有儂拜它們嗎?
Ū lâng pài i bô?
問:有儂拜伊無?

A. Yes.
答:有。
Ū.
應:有。

Q. Do men believe there are good and bad stars?
問:有人相信存在著好星與不好的星嗎?
Ū lâng sìn ū hó pháiⁿ chhiⁿ bô?
問:有儂信有好歹星無?

A. Yes, They are called lucky and evil stars.
答:是的,分別被稱為吉星及邪星。
Ū, ū lâng kóng kiat-chhiⁿ ok-chhiⁿ.
應:有,有儂講吉星、惡星。

Q. What do they mean by happy star?
問:人們認為福星是怎樣的意思?
Lâng kóng hok-chhiⁿ sím-mi̍h í-sù?
問:儂講福星甚物意思?

A. The idea is, that any happiness that may be obtained, comes from that star.
答:這種想法就是說,任何可能得到的福氣,都是來源於那顆星。
Ì-sù sī nā tit-tio̍h hok-khì i lia̍h-chòe sī tùi hit lia̍p chhiⁿ lâi.
應:意思是若得著福氣,伊掠做是對彼粒星來。

Q. Do sailors sail by the stars?
問:船員在航行的時候有依仗星星嗎?
Kiâⁿ-chûn-lâng ū jīn chhiⁿ chòe hoat-tō· bô?
問:行船儂有認星做法度無?

A. Those that go far to sea do.
答:那些遠洋航行的就有。
Kiâⁿ-iûⁿ chiū ū.
應:行洋就有。

Q. Which stars do they consider the most important?
問:他們認為哪些星星比較重要?
Khoàⁿ sím-mi̍h chhiⁿ khah iàu-kín?
問:看甚物星較要緊?

A. The morning star and the Great Bear.
答:啟明星以及北斗星(大熊星座)。
Khé-bêng pak-táu.
應:啟明、北斗。

On Fung-shuy. 32.
風水

Q. What is the meaning of the two words Fung-shuy?
問:風、水即兩字是什麼意思?
hong súi nn̄g jī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:風、水兩字甚物意思?

A. Wind and water.
答:風和水。
Hong kap chúi.
應:風佮水。

Q. How is it that graves are called Fung-Shuy?
問:為何墳墓被稱為「風水」?
Hûn-bōng kiò-chòe hong-súi sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:墳墓叫做「風水①」是怎樣?

A. Because men believe there is a living spirit in the graves.
答:因為人們相信墳墓當中有靈存在著。
In-ūi lâng sìn hûn-bōng ū lêng oē oa̍h.
應:因為儂信墳墓有靈會活。
In-ūi lâng sìn hûn-bōng ū oa̍h-lêng tī- -leh.〖當今的講法〗
因為儂信墳墓有活靈佇咧。

Q. What has this to do with Fung-shuy?
問:這個如何與風水聯繫起來?
Chit ê kap hong-súi cháiⁿ-iūⁿ saⁿ ha̍p?
問:即个佮風水怎樣相合?

A. Because the wind moves and water runs.
答:因為風會移動,而水會跑。
In-ūi hong oē tín-tāng chúi oē kiâⁿ.
應:因為風會振動,水會行。

Q. Do the Chinese believe that the graves can send them good luck.
問:中國人相信風水會給他們帶來好運嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng sìn hûn-bōng oē tì-ìm lâng bōe?
問:唐儂信墳墓會致蔭儂勿會?

A. They think they can.
答:他們認為會的。
Chiàu in phah-sǹg oē.
應:照亻因拍算會。

Q. Do they believe they can injure them?
問:他們相信會帶來傷害嗎?
Iā ū sìn oē hāi bōe?
問:也有信會害勿會?
Iā ū sìn oē kâng hāi bōe?〖當今的講法〗
也有信會共儂害勿會?

A. They do.
答:是的。
Ū.
應:有。

Q. Do they worship at the graves.
問:他們祭拜墳墓嗎?
Ū chè bōng bô?
問:有祭墓無?

A. They do at the Feast of Tombs.
答:清明節就會祭拜。
Ū, chhiⁿ-miâ chiū chè.
應:有,清明②就祭。

【添注、說明】

①「風水」:閩南語所講的「風水」,是陰的。若是「陽的」,閩南語講「地理」,毋講「風水」。普通話所講的「風水」,著無分陰陽,有包括陰地、陽地攏總有。
②「清明」:同安、廈門講「chhiⁿ-miâ」;泉州講「chhuiⁿ-miâ」;漳州講「chheng-bêng」。

On Winds. 33.

Q. What are the prevalent winds in Amoy?
問:廈門較常刮的什麼風?
Ē-mn̂g khah siông sī sím-mi̍h hong?
問:廈門較常①是甚物風?

A. The prevalent winds in summer are southerly, and those in winter northerly.
答:夏季盛行偏南風,而冬天較常刮北風。
Joa̍h-thiⁿ khah siông sī lâm-hong, koâⁿ-thiⁿ sī pak-hong.
應:熱天較常是南風,寒天是北風。

Q. Do the west winds ever blow?
問:有時也刮西風嗎?
Ū-sî ū chhut sai-hong bô?
問:有時有出西風無?

A. Sometimes they do in the morning.
答:有時早晨會有。
Ū-sî chá-khí sî ū.
應:有時早起時有。

Q. When do the typhoons occur?
問:什麼時候來颱風?
sím-mi̍h sî ū hong-thai?
問:甚物時有風颱?
Tī sî ū hong-thai?〖補記〗
底時有風颱?

A. In the sixth and seventh months.
答:在六、七月份。
La̍k chhit ge̍h.
應:六七月。

Q. From what direction do they come?
問:從哪裡來的?
Tùi toh-lo̍h lâi?
問:對佗落來?

A. From the N. E. When they begin, and from the S. E. when they have fully set in.
答:剛開始的時候是從東北方,形成後則從東南方。
Khí tùi tang-pak, chiâⁿ tùi tang-lâm.
應:起,對東北;成,對東南。
Khí-thâu tùi tang-pak lâi, chiâⁿ liáu-āu, oāⁿ tùi tang-lâm.〖當今的講法〗
起頭,是對東北來,成了後,換對東南。

Q. Do they occur every year?
問:每年都發生嗎?
Nî-nî ū bô?
問:年年有無?
Nî-nî ū- -hēⁿ? (ta̍k nî ū, sī- -m̄?)〖當今的講法〗
年年有喺?(逐年有,是毋?)

A. Not in Amoy, but they have them every year in Manila.
答:廈門沒有,但馬尼拉則每年都會有。
Ē-mn̂g bô, Lū-sòng ta̍k nî ū.
應:廈門無,呂宋②逐年有。

Q. Do the sailors know how to get out of the way of typhoons?
問:船員們知道如何閃避颱風嗎?
Kiâⁿ-chûn-lâng chai-iáⁿ thang siám-pī hong-thai mah?
問:行船儂知影通閃避風颱嗎?
Kiâⁿ-chûn-lâng chai-iáⁿ thang siám-pī hong-thai m̄?〖當今的講法〗
行船儂知影通閃避風颱毋?

A. They do not know as well as foreigners do.
答:他們不如外國人清楚。
Bô chhin-chhiūⁿ gōa-kok-lâng hiah chai.
應:無親像外國儂hiah知。

【添注、說明】

①常:讀音「siông」。「常」、「常常」意思大概是「定定」(tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ),總是,用法佫有差。「常」kiau「捷」(chia̍p)嘛有差,「捷」本底意思是「相連sòa、真濟擺」。「常」佮「捷」增差佇「捷」有「連sòa來」的意思,「常」無;佫來「常」的頻率不比「捷」。泉州、同安較有咧講「常」,若漳州著較罕得。廈門話是同安話做底,濟濟腔口攏是對同安話來的。

②呂宋:往過所講的「呂宋」,事實是chiàng時「菲律賓」彼箍圍仔。即陣,誠罕得聽著儂講「呂宋」囉。俗語話猶佫有咧講「一下哄(háng),到香港;一下謗(pòng),到呂宋;一下傳,到台灣」(消息咧傳播是真緊)、「呂宋目镜,隨儂合(kah)目」(普通話:蘿蔔青菜各有所愛)、「走kah呂宋、交喇吧」(走kah對天邊海角去)、「摃呂宋龜」(摃好額儂的錢銀)、「香港大家(ta-ke),吕宋老父(lāu-pē)」、「呂宋pa-lé講家己道」(有喙講別儂,無喙講家己。「pa-lé」,漢字寫做「巴禮」,意思是「天主教的宣教士」)。

Meeting of friends. 34.
朋友會面(朋友相見面)

Q. How have you been lately?
問:汝近況如何?
Lí chiah-kú hó mah?
問:汝即久好嗎?
Lí chiah-kú hó m̄?〖當今的講法〗
汝即久好毋?

A. I am very well, how are you?
答:我很好,你呢?
Góa put-chí hó, lí hó mah?
應:我不止好,汝好嗎?
Góa put-chí hó, lí leh?〖當今的講法〗
我不止好,汝咧?

Q. I have not seen you for a long time, where have you been?
問:我很久沒看到你了,你去哪裡了?
Góa chīn kú bô khoàⁿ-kìⁿ lí, lí khí toh-lo̍h?
問:我盡久無看見汝,汝去佗落?

A. I have been to Tamsuy to see a friend.
答:我去了趟淡水找朋友。
Góa khì chi̍t chōa Tām-chúi, chhē pêng-iú.
應:我去一逝淡水,揣朋友。

Q. What is the state of things there?
問:那個地方景氣如何?
Hiān-sî hit-ê só·-chāi kong-kéng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:現時彼所在光景怎樣?

A. Pretty good.
答:還不錯。
To iáu hó.
應:都猶好。
Bōe bái.〖當今的講法〗
勿會 禾黑啦。

Q. Did you go to Ke-lung?
問:你去基隆(雞籠)了嗎?
Lí ū khí Koe-lâng bô?
問:汝有去基隆無?

A. Yes, I went once.
答:有,我去過一次。
Ū khì chi̍t pái.
應:有去一擺。

Q. Is the railway all laid yet?
問:鐵路都架通了嗎?
Hé-chhia-lō· khui hó bē?
問:火車路開好未?

A. It is very nearly finished.
答:差不多快弄好了。
Chha-put-to chhòng hó.
應:差不多創好。
Chha-put-to chhòng hó ah.〖當今的講法〗
應:差不多創好啊。

Q. Are they using it yet?
問:投入使用了嗎?
Ū teh ēng bē?
問:有咧用未?

A. Yes, it is now in use.
答:是的,在使用了。
Í-keng teh ēng lah.
應:已經咧用啦。
Í-keng teh ēng ah.〖當今的講法〗
已經咧用啊。

Q. Have you ridden on it?
問:你搭乘過沒?
Lí bat chē mah?
問:汝捌坐嗎?
Lí bat chē m̄-bat?〖當今的講法〗
汝捌坐毋捌?

A. I went by it, but did not return by it.
答:我去的時候搭了,但回來沒搭。
khì ū chē, lâi bô.
應:去有坐,來無?
Khì ū chē, tò-lâi bô.〖當今的講法〗
去有坐,倒來無。

Q. How much did they charge each person.
問:一個人收取多少錢?
Chi̍t lâng khioh jōa-chōe?
問:一儂khioh偌濟?

A. Very cheap, only a few tens of cents.
答:很便宜,只需幾毛錢而已。
Séng-séng, put-kò kúi kak gûn nā-tiāⁿ.
應:省省,不過幾角銀但定。

On inviting guests. 35.
請客

Q. Are you going to have guests tomorrow?
問:你打算明天晏請客人嗎?
Lí bîn-á-chài① beh chhiáⁿ lâng-kheh bô?
問:汝明仔再卜請儂客無?

A. Yes, I have several friends that I am going to invite.
答:是啊,有好幾個朋友我要邀請他們來。
Ū, góa ū kúi-nā ê pêng-iú beh chhiáⁿ.
應:有,我有幾若个朋友卜請。

Q. How many are you going to invite?
問:你打算邀請幾個呢?
Beh chhiáⁿ kúi ê?
問:卜請幾个?

A. About ten.
答:大約十個。
Iok-liōng cha̍p-ê.
應:約量十个。

Q. What kind of people are these ten?
問:這十個是些什麼樣的人呢?
Cha̍p-ê sī sím-mi̍h hō lâng?
問:十个是甚物號儂?
Cha̍p-ê sī sím-mi̍h khoán ê lâng? (Cha̍p-ê sī toh-lo̍h chi̍t hō ê lâng?)〖當今的講法〗
十个是甚物款的儂?(十个是佗落一號的儂)?

A. They are all first class people.
答:他們都是些上流的人。
Lóng sī siōng-téng lâng.
應:攏是上等儂。

Q. Have you ever invited a low class of people?
問:你有沒有請過低階層的人呢?
Hā-téng ê lâng lí ū bat chhiáⁿ mah?
問:下等的儂汝有捌請嗎?
Hā-téng ê lâng lí bat chhiáⁿ m̄-bat?〖當今的講法〗
下等的儂汝捌請毋捌?

A. I sometimes do.
答:有時也會啦。
Ū-sî ia̍h ū.
應:有時亦有。

Q. How do you entertain your guests?
問:如何招待你的客人呢?
Lí chhiáⁿ lâng-kheh, cháiⁿ-iūⁿ khoán-thāi i?
問:汝請儂客,怎樣款待伊?
Lí chhiáⁿ lâng-kheh, cháiⁿ-iūⁿ khoán-thāi in?〖當今的講法〗
汝請儂客,怎樣款待亻因?

A. After dinner, I have to think how to amuse them.
答:晚飯後,我得考慮如何取樂他們。
Chia̍h bêng-pe̍k, góa chiū siūⁿ cháiⁿ-iūⁿ hō· i tek-kái.
應:食明白,我就想怎樣予伊較得解②。
Chia̍h soah, góa tio̍h lâi siūⁿ khoàⁿ beh cháiⁿ-iūⁿ hō· in chhit-thô tio̍h ē hoaⁿ-hí.〖當今的講法〗
食煞,我著來想看卜怎樣予亻因chhit-thô著會歡喜。

Q. How do you amuse them?
問:如何讓他們盡興呢?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ hō· i sim-sek?
問:怎樣予伊心適?
Beh cháiⁿ-iūⁿ hō· in sim-sek?〖當今的講法〗
卜怎樣予亻因心適?

A. By playing the piano, or by showing them pictures.
答:或許彈琴啦,亦或許給他們圖畫看啦。
Kiám-chhái toâⁿ-khîm, khiám-chhái③ ēng ang-á hō· i khoàⁿ.
應:敢採彈琴,敢採用尪仔予伊看。
Kiám-chhái toâⁿ-khîm, khiám-chhái③ the̍h ang-á hō· in khoàⁿ.〖補記〗
敢採彈琴,敢採摕尪仔予亻因看。

Q. When do they go home?
問:什麼時候讓他們回家呢?
Kàu tī sî chiah soàⁿ?
問:到 底時 則 散?

A. Not later than ten o’clock.
答:不遲於十點鐘。
M̄ chiūⁿ cha̍p-tiám.
應:毋上十點。

【添注、說明】

①「明仔再(bîn-á-chài)」,照古冊記載,通知影往過廈門話的確是按呢講的,毋kú,即陣攏變做「mî-á-chài」,做頭(chòe-thâu:起先)我拍算彼是唸走音去,年久月深soah定型。毋kú,有同安(Tâng-oaⁿ)網友來報講,同安腔有儂講做「miâ- -chài」,伊講,「明」讀做「miâ」是親像「清明(chhiⁿ-miâ)」;講「miâ- -chài」本底是「明早起(miâ chá-khí)」,因為「早起」合音起來,佫變輕聲,成做「chài」……是講,這到底(tàu-tí)有影無影,嘛毋知。若漳州海澄腔,即陣照原是講做「bîn-á-chài」。
②「得解」:tek-kái,這算是書面語。意思是「快活」(khoàⁿ-oa̍h)、「心適」。
③「kiám-chhái」/「khiám-chhái」:意思是「可能會……」 ,佫有講做 kám-chhái, tiám-chhái, thiám-chhái幾若種腔口。

僱用傭人(倩工)

Q. Is there a butler to be had?
問:能不能請一個管事?
Oē-tit-thang chhiàⁿ chi̍t ê koán-sū bô?
問:會得通倩一个管事無?
Ū koán-sū thang chhiàⁿ- -bô?〖當今的講法〗
有管事通倩無?

A. Yes.
答:是的,可以。
Oē.
應:會。
Ū.〖當今的講法〗
有。

Q. Where is he to be had?
問:上哪兒能夠請到呢?
Tī toh-lo̍h ū?
問:佇佗落有?

A. In Amoy.
答:在廈門。
Tī Ē-mn̂g.
應:佇廈門。

Q. With whom has he lived?
問:他們原本和誰一起住呢?
Pún kap sím-mi̍h lâng tòa?
問:本①佮甚物儂蹛?
Chū-pún kap sím-mi̍h lâng tòa?〖當今的講法〗
自本佮甚物儂蹛?

A. He has lived with several people.
答:曾經是和幾個人住在一起。
I bat kap kúi lâng tòa.
應:伊捌佮幾儂蹛。
I pat kah kúi-nā ê lâng tòa.〖當今的講法〗
伊捌佮幾若个儂蹛。

Q. How much does he want a month?
問:他一個月要多少錢?
Chi̍t ge̍h-ji̍t beh ti̍h jōa-chōe?
問:一月日卜挃偌濟?

A. I think ten dollars.
答:我想,十塊錢吧。
Phah-sǹg cha̍p kho· .
應:拍算十箍。

Q. Can you recommend me a cook?
問:你能不能給我介紹個廚師?
Lí oē kiò chi̍t ê chú-chia̍h bōe?
問:汝會叫一个煮食勿會?
Lí ū hoat thang kā góa kiò chi̍t ê chú-chia̍h- -ê bô?〖當今的講法〗
汝有法通共我叫一个煮食的無?

A. I have a very good one I can recommend you.
答:我有一好的人選可以舉薦給你。
Góa ū chi̍t ê chīn thò-tòng- -ê, thang kú-chiàn hō· lí.
應:我有一个盡妥當的,通舉薦予汝。

Q. Does he cook well?
問:他很會煮嗎?
I gâu chú mah?
問:伊敖煮嗎?
I ē gâu chú bōe?〖當今的講法〗
伊會敖煮勿會?

A. He is very clever.
答:他很擅长的。
I chīn gâu.
應:伊盡敖。

Q. Does he know how to buy?
問:伊懂得採購嗎?
I oē hiáu-tit bóe chhài bōe?
問:伊會曉得買菜勿會?

A. He knows well how to buy.
答:他很懂得採購。
I bóe mi̍h chīn chai-iáⁿ.
應:伊買物盡知影。

Q. Does he cheat when he buys?
問:他採購的時候會作手腳嗎?
I bóe mi̍h oē thau thàn bōe?
問:伊買物會偷趁勿會?

A. Every cook cheats in China.
答:在中國,每個廚子都有貓膩。
Tiong-kok ta̍k-ê chú-chia̍h ū thau thàn.
應:中國逐个煮食有偷趁。
Tiong-kok ta̍k-ê chú-chia̍h- -ê to-ū thau thàn.〖當今的講法〗
中國逐个煮食的都有偷趁。

Q. Do the Chinese cooks think it wrong to cheat?
問:中國廚子是否覺得欺詐行為是不正確的呢?
Tn̂g-lâng chú-chia̍h thau thàn, ū siūⁿ-kiò sī tio̍h á m̄-tio̍h?
問:唐儂煮食偷趁,有想叫是著抑毋著?

A. They dare not say it is right.
答:他們不敢說這是正確的。
M̄-káⁿ kóng sī tio̍h.
應:毋敢講是著。

【添注、說明】

①本:原本、自本、本底。單音節的詞,往過真常用,即陣變較少。

On Time. 37.
時陣(時間)

Q. How do the Chinese know what time it is?
問:中國人是如何知道每天時辰的?
Tn̂g-lâng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ oē chai sî-chūn.
問:唐儂怎樣會知時陣?

A. There are two ways. One is to make a guess, and the other is to look at a sun-dial.
答:有兩種方法。一是要猜測,另一個是通過觀看日規(日晷)。
Ū nn̄g hō ê hoat-tō·, chi̍t hō sī iok-liōng, chi̍t hō khoàⁿ ji̍t-kui.
應:有兩號的法度,一號是約量,一號看日規①。

Q. What do they make their guess from?
問:他們是根據什麼來猜測的?
Tùi sím-mi̍h lâi iok-liōng?
問:對甚物來約量?

A. From the sun, and from the cock crow, and also from the men’s work.
答:從太陽啦,從雞鳴啦,或者從人的工作情況而論。
Tùi ji̍t-iáⁿ, iā tùi koe thî, iā tùi lâng só· chòe ê kang.
應:對日影,也對雞啼,也對儂所做的工。

Q. How do they know from the sun-dial?
問:他們是如何從日規上面獲知的?
Tùi ji̍t-kui sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:對日規是怎樣?

A. They know from where the shadow falls on the sun-dial.
答:看日影投在日規上的位置,他們就知道了。
Khoàⁿ ji̍t-kui khan kàu toh-lo̍h chiū oē chai.
應:看日規牽影到佗落就會知。

Q. Do the Chinese use clocks and watches?
問:中國人用鐘表嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ū ēng sî-cheng pio-á bô?
問:唐儂有用時鐘錶仔②無?

A. They do more at the ports.
答:沿海口岸一帶比較多。
Hái-kháu khah ū.
應:海口較有。

Q. Do they use them in the interior where foreigners have not yet been?
問:內地一些外國人還沒到過的地方,他們有使用嗎?
Lāi-tōe gōa-kok-lâng bē kàu ê só·-chāi ū teh ēng bô?
問:內地外國儂未到的所在有咧用無?

A. Formerly they did not, but now they do more.
答:以前沒有,但現在比較多了。
Chá bô, taⁿ khah ū.
應:早無,當(taⁿ)較有。

Q. Do the Chinese know how to take care of them?
問:中國人知道如何進行保養嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng oē-hiáu chiàu-kò· mah?
問:唐儂會曉照顧嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng oē-hiáu thang koán-kò· bōe?〖當今的講法〗
唐儂會曉通管顧勿會?

A. The most do not.
答:大多都不會。
Khah chōe bōe hiáu-tit.
應:較濟勿會曉得。

Q. Do the Chinese like to use watches?
問:中國人喜歡使用錶嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ài ēng pio-á mah?
問:唐儂愛用錶仔嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ài ēng pio-á m̄?〖當今的講法〗
唐儂愛用錶仔毋?

A. Yes, and they also like clocks.
答:是的,他們也喜歡時鐘。
Ū, in iā ài-tit ēng sî-cheng.
應:有,亻因也愛得用時鐘。

【添注、說明】

①日規:在佇閩南話有兩種意思。一是,中國古早,按照日影測定時辰的儀器,嘛叫做「日晷」(這是啥物件?較停,請看下底的視頻,汝著會知!)。原文所講的「日規」,著是即个含義。儂講「無日,毋知晝(tàu)」,可見,古早儂看日頭影算時陣,真正重要。二是,表示逐日有咧拆的曆日(la̍h-ji̍t),即種講法,拍算廈門即陣無咧講ah,不而過,佇漳州龍海講海澄腔的所在,現此時猶佫有咧講。(視頻網址是:http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNTgxNzE1OTI=.html)
②錶仔:原文的白話字寫做「pio-á」,下底所添注的漢字寫做「表仔」,原文攏總出現兩擺,按照伊所寫的白話字,兩擺攏是上平(chiūⁿ-piâⁿ,陰平),所以,決斷(koat-toàn)毋是寫了賺誤(tāⁿ-ngō·)。我所以共伊寫做「錶仔」,不過是照現時的用字做參考。「pio-á」(注意!毋是「pió-á」)即款講法,現此時,佇漳州龍海市講海澄腔的所在,照原是按呢講的,顛倒佇廈門,即陣我soah毋捌聽著儂講「pio-á」。若照「pio-á」來看,我咧約,kiám-chhái是「標仔」,也kiám-chhái是「鏢仔」。講「標仔」,是因為「標」自底有「標準」、「標尺」的含義佇咧。iah若講「鏢仔」,是因為「時錶」的動針,本然看著親像一支「鏢」,無的確choân共「時錶」叫做「鏢仔」he嘛敢(káⁿ)。

On fires. 38.
火災(火燒)

Q. Are there sometimes fires in Amoy?
問:在廈門有些時候是否會有火災?
Ū-sî tī Ē-mn̂g ū hé-sio bô?
問:有時佇廈門有火燒厝無?

A. There are frequently.
答:很經常發生。
Siông-siông ū.
應:常常①有。
Tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ ū.〖當今的講法〗
定定有。

Q. How do they occur?
問:怎麼發生的呢?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ oē àn-ni?
問:怎樣會按呢?

A. Most generally because the pople are careless about fire.
答:大部分是因為人們不注意防火。
Khah siông sī bô sòe-jī chiàu-kò· .
應:較常是無細膩照顧火。
Khah chōe sī bô sòe-jī, hé kò· bô hó-sè.〖當今的講法〗
較濟是無細膩,火顧無好勢。

Q. When are the fires most frequent?
問:什麼時候火災最頻發?
Sím-mi̍h sî khah ū hé-sio?
問:甚物時較有火燒?
Sím-mi̍h sî-chūn khah ū hé-sio?〖當今的講法〗
甚物時陣較有火燒?

A. In the winter.
答:在冬天。
Tang-thiⁿ-sî.
應:冬天時。

Q. How it is there are more fires in the winter?
問:為什麼冬天火災更常見呢?
Tang-thiⁿ-sî cháiⁿ-iūⁿ khah ū hé-sio?
問:冬天時怎樣較有火燒?

A. Because the north wind is stronger, and because the houses are drier.
答:因為北風強,而且房子比較乾燥。
In-ūi pak-hong khah thàu, chhù-sin khah ta.
應:因為北風較透,厝身較焦。

Q. How do they put out the fire?
問:他們如何撲火呢?
Beh kiù hé tio̍h cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:卜救火著怎樣?

A. Great numbers carry water and throw on it.
答:一大堆人挑水來澆。
Chīn chōe lâng taⁿ chúi lâi phah.
應:盡濟儂擔水去拍。

Q. Why don’t they employ fire engines?
問:他們為什麼不僱用噴水設備?
Siáⁿ-sū bô ēng chúi-lêng?
問:啥事無用水龍?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ bô ēng chúi-lêng?〖當今的講法〗
問:怎樣無用水龍?

A. Because the Chinese have none.
答:因為中國人原本就沒有。
In-ūi Tn̂g-lâng pún bô.
應:因為唐儂本無。
In-ūi Tn̂g-lâng goân-pún tio̍h bô.〖當今的講法〗
因為唐儂原本著無。

Q. Are the fires sometimes extensive?
問:火災有時大面積嗎?
Hé-sio ū-sî sio kàu tōa-phiàn mah?
問:火燒有時燒到②大片嗎?
Hé-sio ū-sî sio kah chin tōa-phiàn bōe?〖當今的講法〗
火燒有時燒kah真大片勿會?

A. Yes. Several hundreds of houses are burnt.
答:是的。數百間房屋被燒毀。
Oē, sio kàu kúi pah keng chhù.
應:會,燒到幾百間厝。

【添注、說明】

①「常常」:即陣佇廈門,較無咧講「常常」,攏講「定定」(tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ)較濟。
②「燒到……」:即个「到」是程度副詞,看原文咱就通知影當時的確講做「kàu」,ah若即陣攏講做「kah」,算是音讀促化。

On Floods. 39.
水灾

Q. Have there ever been floods in Amoy?
問:廈門有過水災的經歷嗎?
Ē-mn̂g bat ū chúi-chai bô?
問:廈門捌有水災無?

A. Never.
答:從未有過。
Lóng m̄-bat.
應:攏毋捌。

Q. How is that?
問:為什麼不曾有呢?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ m̄-bat?
問:怎樣毋捌?

A. Because it is an island, and the land is high.
答:因為它是個海島,且地勢高。
In-ūi sī hái-sū, tōe koh koâiⁿ.
應:因為是海嶼,地佫懸。

Q. Are there never floods in the interior after heavy rains?
問:內地不會沒有暴雨洪水吧?
Lāi-tōe kiám bô tōa-hō· im-chúi mah?
問:內地敢無大雨淹水嗎?
Lāi-tōe kiám bô tōa-hō· im-chúi m̄?〖當今的講法〗
內地敢無大雨淹水毋?

A. This kind of flood is more frequent.
答:這種洪水就更加頻繁。
Chit hō tōa-chúi khah siông ū.
應:即號大水較常有。

Q. Is it serious?
問:是否嚴重呢?
Ū siong-tiōng bô?
問:有傷重①無?

A. When it destroys the crops then it is serious.
答:如果損害到作物,那就嚴重了。
Nā hāi-tio̍h gō·-kak, chiū siong-tiōng.
應:若害著五穀②,就傷重。

Q. Where are the floods more frequent?
問:哪裡洪水更加頻繁呢?
Tī toh-lo̍h khah ū tōa-chúi?
問:佇佗落較有大水?

A. In the north.
答:北方。
Pak sì.
應:北勢。

Q. In what provinces?
問:在什麼省份?
Tī sím-mi̍h séng?
問:佇甚物省?

A. In the provinces of Shan-tung and Chihli.
答:山東、直隸兩省。
Soaⁿ-tang Ti̍t-lē nn̄g séng.
應:山東、直隸兩省。

Q. Are many drowned?
問:許多人淹死嗎?
Chōe-chōe lâng hō· tōa-chúi im- -sí bô?
問:濟濟儂予大水淹死無?

A. Yes, and the houses are destroyed.
答:是的,房子也被摧毀了。
Ū, iā ū phah-pháiⁿ chhù.
應:有,也有拍歹厝。

Q. Do the mandarins use means for saving the people?
問:官府有採取措施,救助百姓嗎?
Koaⁿ-hú ū siat-hoat kiù peh-sìⁿ bô?
問:官府有設法救百姓無?

A. Yes, the get up subscriptions to help them.
答:是的,到處發起募捐幫助他們。
Ū, sì-kòe tôe chîⁿ lâi pang-chān.
應:有,四界題錢③來幫贈④。

【添注、說明】

①「傷重」:病情、負擔、災難真悿「thiám」。無管漳腔、泉腔,攏是siong-tiōng,所以,拍算「siong」本字未然是「傷」。
②「五穀」:原文白話字寫做「gō·-kak」,這是白話音,現此時,較少儂會曉講囉(有是有,較少)。嘛會使講「ngó·-kok」(讀冊音)。總是,「gō·-kak」、「ngó·-kok」毋是任何時陣攏會當自由替換。像講「五穀王」,kan-ta有講做「Ngó·-kok-ông」,無講做「Gō·-kak-ông」。
③「題錢」:著是募捐(bō·-koan)。廟會鬧熱,定定有設「捐碗(iân-oáⁿ)」,在儂去咧「捐題(iân-tôe)」奉獻。「題」著是「捐(iân)」。「捐」,《韻會》余專切,音沿(iân)。捐(iân),做名詞較濟,像講:捐錢(iân-chîⁿ)、「捐碗(iân-oáⁿ)」、題捐、捐銀、捐金、化捐、捐簿、收捐、捐捐(koan-iân)。Ah若是作動詞,嘛有「捐題」。
④「幫贈」:pang-chān,意思是「贊助」(chàn-chō·)。

On Pockets. 40.
口袋(落袋仔)

Q. Do the Chinese have pockets in their clothes?
問:中國人的衣服有設置口袋嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ê saⁿ ū chòe tē-á bô?
問:唐儂的衫有做袋仔無?

A. Originally they had not, but lately they are more in use.
答:原來他們沒有做,不過最近比較多了。
Pún-jiân lóng bô, taⁿ kūn-lâi khah ū.
應:本然攏無,當(taⁿ)近來較有。

Q. If originally they had not, where did they put their things in then?
問:如果原本沒有,那當時他們要把東西放在什麼地方呢?
Pún-jiân bô, hit sî ēng sím-mi̍h lâi khǹg mi̍h?
問:本然無,彼時用甚物來囥物?

A. The pouch and the small double bag.
答:荷包以及褡褳。
Hau-pau, tah-liân-á.
應:荷包、褡褳①仔。

Q. Are there any beside these two?
問:除這兩種之外還有別的嗎?
Nn̄g hāng í-gōa, iáu ū bô?
問:兩項以外,猶有無?

A. Yes, they use the broad pouch (worn next the skin).
答:有,還有用掛袋。
Ū, iáu ū ēng tó·-koāⁿ.
應:有,猶有用肚捍。

Q. What do they put into it?
問:裡面裝什麼呢?
Lāi-bīn teh tē sím-mi̍h?
問:內面咧袋甚物?

A. A variety of things.
問:零碎物。
Lân-san mi̍h.
問:零星物。

Q. Have the women any pockets in their dresses?
問:婦人的衣服也有設置口袋嗎?
Hū-jîn-lâng saⁿ iā ū chhòng tē-á bô?
問:婦人儂衫也有創袋仔無?

A. No, they have only the tó·-koāⁿ.
答:沒有,她們只有腰袋(掛袋)。
Bô, tó·-koāⁿ nā-tiāⁿ.
應:無,肚捍但定。

Q. Are there any pockets in the dresses of children?
問:小孩的衣服有沒有設置口袋?
Gín-á ê saⁿ ū tē-á bô?
問:囡仔的衫有袋仔無?

A. None in the dresses, but they have one tied on the outside to their clothes.
答:衣服上沒有,但有一種綁在衣服上的頸圍兜就有了。
Saⁿ khah bô, chiah-pn̄g ám-kún-tē chiū ū.
應:衫較無,食飯頷頸袋就有。

Q. What do they put in them?
問:用來裝什麼呢?
Teh tóe sím-mi̍h?
問:咧貯甚物?

A. Sweets, and plsythings.
答:零食以及玩具。
Mi̍h-chia̍h, thit-thô-mi̍h.
應:物食、thit-thô物。

Q. When a man is travelling and does not wish any one to know that he is carrying money, where does he put it?
問:人們外出的時候,並不希望別人知道他身上攜帶了錢財,那得要藏在哪兒?
Lâng chhut-gōa kiâⁿ-lō·, m̄ ài-tit lâng chai i ū teh tòa-gûn, sī hē toh-lo̍h?
問:儂出外行路,毋愛得儂知伊有咧帶銀,是下佗落?

A. He puts it in a long narrow bag round his waist.
答:他把它裝在一個狹長的腰包。
I tóe khò·-thâu-lêng hâ io.
應:伊貯褲頭裬②縖腰。

【添注、說明】

①「褡褳」:tah-liân,中國古早時陣,儂咧用的一款袋仔。中央開喙,兩頭會當貯物件的袋仔,大奇(kha)的會當揹(phāiⁿ)蹛咧肩胛頭;細奇的會當縖(hâ)佇腰帶的。
②「褲頭裬」:khò·-thâu-lêng,縛(pa̍k)佇褲頭的腰帶,有格(kek)暗袋,用來貯錢。這以外,婦人儂縖佇褲頭的幼帶仔嘛叫做「褲頭裬」。

On Hats and Bonnets. 41.
帽(1)

Q. Do the Chinese all wear hats?
問:中國人都有戴帽子嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng lóng-chóng ū tì bō mah?
問:唐儂攏總有戴帽嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng lóng-chóng ū tì bō bô?〖當今的講法〗
唐儂攏總有戴帽無?

A. The common people never do excepting on special occasions.
答:除非特殊場合,一般是不戴的。
Pêng-siông-lâng bô tōa tāi-chì chiū bô tì.
應:平常儂,無大代誌就無戴。

Q. What then do they wear?
問:那麼,戴什麼呢?
Hit-tia̍p tì sím-mi̍h?
問:彼輒戴甚物?

A. They have turbans in the cold weather, and nothing in the hot.
答:冷天包上頭巾,而天熱時則什麼也不戴。
Koâⁿ-thiⁿ tîⁿ thâu-pò·, joa̍h-thiⁿ bô tì sím-mi̍h.
應:寒天纏頭布,熱天無戴甚物。

Q. Do the upper and middle classes wear hats.
問:上流或中產階級人士戴帽子嗎?
Siōng-téng, tiong-téng lâng ū tì bō mah?
問:上等、中等儂有戴帽嗎?
Siōng-téng, tiong-téng lâng ū tì bō-á bô?〖當今的講法〗
上等、中等儂有戴帽仔無?

A. Both classes do.
答:兩類人都有。
Nn̄g téng lóng ū.
應:兩等攏有。

Q. How many kinds of hats are there?
問:有多少種帽子呢?
Bō ū kúi hō?
問:帽有幾號?

A. There are a great many kinds.
答:有好多種。
Ū chīn chōe hō.
應:有盡濟號。

Q. What are they?
問:是什麼呢?
Sím-mi̍h hō bō?
問:甚物號帽?
Sím-mi̍h khoán ê bō leh?〖當今的講法〗
甚物款的帽咧?

A. The skull cap, felt hat, the autumn cap, and the play actors’s cap.
答:無沿便帽、氈帽、秋帽以及戲劇小生帽。
Oáⁿ-bō, chiⁿ-bō, chhiu-bō, seng-bō.
應:碗帽、氈帽、秋帽、生帽。

Q. Are there any other kinds?
問:還有其它種類嗎?
Iáu ū pa̍t-mi̍h hō bô?
問:猶有別物號無?
Koh ū pa̍t hō- -ê bô?〖補記〗
佫有別號的無?

A. Yes, there are the fur cap, the mandarin’s cap, and the Buddhist priest’s cap.
答:是的,有毛織帽、官帽,還有僧帽。
Ū, ū mn̂g-bō, koaⁿ-bō, koh ū hê-siūⁿ-bō.
應:有,有毛帽、官帽,佫有和尚帽。

On Hats and Bonnets. (Continued) 42.
帽(2)

Q. Are there any other kinds of caps?
問:還有其它種類的帽子嗎?
iáu ū pa̍t-hō bō bô?
問:猶有別號帽無?

A. Yes, there are the boy’s cap, the court cap, the half mourning cap, and the military cap.
答:是的,有囟帽①,朝帽②,青帽③,軍帽。
Ū, ū sìn-bō, tiâu-bō, chhiⁿ-bō, koh ū kun-ki-bō.
應:有,有囟帽,朝帽,青帽,佫有軍機帽④。

Q. Do the women wear bonnets?
問:婦女們戴帽子嗎?
Hū-jîn-lâng ū tì bō mah?
問:婦人儂有戴帽嗎?
Hū-jîn-lâng ū tì bō bô?〖當今的講法〗
婦人儂有戴帽無?

A. No.
答:沒有。
Bô.
應:無。

Q. Do they wear any thing on their heads when they go out?
問:她們外出的時候,在頭上戴什麼東西呢?
Nā chhut-mn̂g, ū tì sím-mi̍h?
問:若出門,有戴甚物?

A. Some wear a black scarf round the head in the cold weather, and some wear nothing.
答:天氣冷的時候,有些人在頭上扎一條黑頭巾,而有些則什麼也不戴。
Koâⁿ-thiⁿ ū-ê pau o·-kun, ū-ê lóng bô tì sím-mi̍h.
應:寒天有的包烏巾,有的攏無戴甚物。

Q. If they do not wear any thing on the head, what then?
問:如果她們什麼也不戴,那頭上怎麼辦?
Nā bô tì bō, thâu-khak àn-cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:若無戴帽,頭殼卜按怎樣?

A. They put flowers in the hair, and gold and silver pins.
答:她們在頭上插花,以及金、銀簪。
Ū chhah-hoe, chhah kim gûn chiam-á.
應:有插花,插金銀簪仔。

Q. Do the childred wear hats?
問:小孩戴帽子嗎?
Gín-ná ū tì bō mah?
問:囡仔有戴帽嗎?
Gín-ná ū tì bō bô?〖當今的講法〗
囡仔有戴帽無?

A. Boys and girls all do.
答:男孩女孩都有。
Ta-po· cha-bó· lóng tì.
應:查甫、諸母攏戴。

Q. When do they begin to wear them?
問:從什麼時候戴起的?
Tī sî chiah ū tì?
問:底時chiah有戴⑤?

A. A month after they are born.
答:出生滿一個月後。
Chhut-sì kàu móa-ge̍h chiū tì.
應:出世到滿月就戴⑥。

【添注、說明】

①囟帽:sìn-bō,是往過一款頂有開空的囡仔帽。
②朝帽:tiâu-bō,往過官員上朝面君的時陣,咧戴的帽。
③青帽:chhiⁿ-bō (漳州腔:chheⁿ-bō),辦喪事的時陣所戴的帽仔,是青色的。
④軍機帽:kun-ki-bō。往過,朝庭有設軍機處,總管號做「軍機大臣」,統管軍務。做兵的儂,咧戴的帽仔,號做「軍機帽」,也著是即陣所講的「軍帽」。
⑤「When do they begin to wear them?」即句話原文翻做「底時chiah有戴?」,意思是講「對啥物時陣起,chiah有咧戴」。
⑥「A month after they are born.」即句原文翻做「出世到滿月就戴。」,意思是講「自出世了後,到滿月chiah開始有戴」。漳泉儂的khiàn-sńg,未滿月的紅嬰仔,bōe使剃頭,所以嘛較無咧戴帽仔。

On Funerals.43.
喪事

Q. How long are they before they bury the dead?
問:人死後多久才安葬?
Lâng sí jōa kú chiah ū tâi?
問:儂死偌久則有埋?

A. Some soon after death, and some after a longer time.
答:有的馬上安葬,有些比較遲。
Ū-ê hiān tâi, ū-ê khah kú.
應:有的現埋,有的較久。

Q. If there is any delay, for how long is it?
問:如果有延遲,那有多久呢?
Nā iân-chhiân, tio̍h jōa kú?
問:若延延,著偌久?

A. Sometimes several months and sometimes several years.
答:有時幾個月,有時好幾年。
Ū-sî kúi ge̍h-ji̍t, ū-sî kúi-nā nî.
應:有時幾月日,有時幾若年。

Q. Why so long?
問:為什麼這麼久?
Siáⁿ-sū tio̍h hiah kú?
問:啥事著hiah久?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ tio̍h hiah kú?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣著hiah久?

A. More often because they cannot find a good place to bury in.
答:很多往往是因為找不到一個好的地方來安葬。
Khah chōe sī in-ūi chhē bô hó só·-chāi thang tâi.
應:較濟是因為揣無好所在通埋。

Q. There are places every where, there is no need of searching for one, is there?
問:地點到處有,並不需要去尋找,不是嗎?
Só·-chāi ta̍k ūi ū, mih-sái tio̍h chhē mah?
問:所在逐位有,乜使①著揣嗎?
Só·-chāi ta̍k ūi ū, ā-sái tio̍h chhē?〖當今的講法〗
所在逐位有,亦使著揣?

A. Is it because people want to find a lucky place.
答:那是因為人們想找一個福地。
In-ūi beh chhē khah hó ê hong-súi.
應:因為卜揣較好的風水。

Q. Do the Amoy people belive that?
問:廈門人相信這個嗎?
Ē-mn̂g lâng sìn àn-ni mah?
問:廈門儂信按呢嗎?
Ē-mn̂g lâng sìn án-ni m̄?〖當今的講法〗
廈門儂信按呢毋?

A. All do.
答:都相信。
Lóng-chóng sìn.
應:攏總信。

Q. How do they know whether a place is good or bad?
問:如何知道一個地點是否是好還是壞?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ oē chai só·-chāi sī hó á-sī pháiⁿ?
問:怎樣會知所在是好抑是歹?

A. They engage a geomancer to tell them.
答:他們聘請風水先生來指導。
Chhiàⁿ tē-lí-su lâi khoàⁿ.
應:倩地理師來看。

Q. How does the geomancer know?
問:風水先生怎麼知道呢?
Tē-lí-sian, beh thái oē chai?
問:地理仙,卜汰②會知?

A. He studies the character of the hills, and tells the people where the lucky spots are.
答:他講究山體走向,並告訴人們哪裡是福地。
I ū káng-kiù soaⁿ-sè, sòa pò hit ê hó-kiat ê só·-chāi.
應:伊有講究山勢,紲報彼个好吉的所在。

Q. Does he really know them?
問:他真的懂得嗎?
I chin-chiàⁿ chai mah?
問:伊真正知嗎?
I chin-chiàⁿ chai m̄?〖當今的講法〗
伊真正知毋?

A. No, it is all deception.
答:不,那都是騙人的。
Bô, lóng sī phiàn lâng.
應:無,攏是騙儂。

【添注、說明】

①「乜使」:mih-sái,意思是「ā-sái」,哪著,是倒問的口氣。舉例造句——「即款代誌儂儂知,乜使佫講出來啦?!」,翻做普通話是「這種事情眾人皆知,哪需要再講出來呢?」
②「汰」:thái,意是「thái-thó」。相當普通話所講的「怎、怎麼」。

On The last day of the year. 44.
大年夜【1】(二九暝【1】)

Q. Do the Chinese think much of the last day of the year?
問:中國人重視大年三十嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ū tùi-tiōng jī-káu-mî mah?
問:唐儂有對重二九暝嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ū tùi-tiōng jī-káu-mî bô?〖當今的講法〗
唐儂有對重二九暝無?

A. Yes, they think it one of the important days of the year.
答:是的,認為是一年當中一個重要的日子。
Ū, sǹg chòe chi̍t-nî lāi iàu-kín ê ji̍t.
應:有,算做一年內要緊的日。

Q. What do they do on that day?
問:這一天他們做些什麼呢?
Hit ji̍t teh pān sím-mi̍h tāi-chì?
問:彼日咧辦甚物代誌?

A. Make presents and perform ceremonies, make up their accounts, and collect debts.
答:送禮拜年、算賬,追債。
Sàng nî, sǹg siàu, thó siàu.
應:送年、算數,討數。

Q. Is there anything else they do?
問:還有別的事項嗎?
Iáu ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t hāng?
問:猶有甚物別項?

A. The whole family gathers round the vessel for burning incense and worships their ancestors and idols, and then with rejoicings eat and drink.
答:燒香祭祖、祭拜神明、闔家圍爐,歡慶吃喝。
Hàu chó·, hàu pu̍t, choân ke ûi-lô·, hoaⁿ-hí lim chiah.
應:孝祖、孝佛、全家圍爐、歡喜啉食。

Q. Do they like to meet as a complete family that day?
問:是日,大家伙都期望一家團圓嗎?
Hit ji̍t, ke-lāi ê lâng lóng ài chiâu tī- -leh bô?
問:彼日,家內的儂攏愛褿佇咧無?

A. Every one wishes that.
答:人人希望如此。
Ta̍k ê ài àn-ni.
應:逐个愛按呢。

Q. When a man is far from home, and cannot be present what then?
問:若有人出遠門不能到位,那便怎樣?
Ū lâng khì khah hn̄g bōe-tit lâi, beh cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:有儂去較遠勿會得來,卜怎樣?

A. He mourns and is grieved at heart, and thinks of those at home.
答:心裡憂愁苦悶,想家念家。
Hoân-ló khó·-sim, siàu-liām ke-lāi.
應:煩惱苦心,數念家內。

Q. Does the family think of him?
問:家裡的人會牽掛他嗎?
Ke-lāi ê lâng ū siàu-liām i bô?
問:家內的儂有數念伊無?

A. Yes, and they grieve that he cannot be present.
答:是的,為他不能到位而悲傷。
Ū, sòa hoân-ló i bōe hù.
應:有,紲煩惱伊勿會赴。
Ū, hoân-ló i bōe-tit-thang tò-tńg- -lâi.〖當今的講法〗
有,煩惱伊勿會得通倒轉來。

On The last day of the year. (Continued) 45.
大年夜【2】(二九暝【2】)

Q. How do they collect debts on that day?
問:是日,如何進行討債呢?
Hit ji̍t thó siàu cháiⁿ-iūⁿ thó?
問:彼日討數怎樣討?

A. They are very stern in their demands, as though non-payment would not be tolerated.
答:逼得相當緊,看樣子不還錢是不行的。
Thó liáu put-chí ân, khoán-sit bô hêng bōe-chòe-tit.
應:討了不止緪,款式①無還勿會做得。

Q. Do they collect by day or night?
問:是白天去追討,還是晚上?
Sī ji̍t- -sî khì thó, á-sī mî- -sî thó?
問:是日時去討,抑是暝時討?

A. By both day and night, and they stop only with the daybreak of next morning.
答:日夜都追,直到第二天天亮才停歇。
Mî-ji̍t lóng thó, kàu bîn-ná-chài thiⁿ kng chiah soah.
應:暝日攏討,到明仔再天光則煞。

Q. Do men carry lanterns, and pretending that daylight hsa not yet come, still demand payment?
問:有沒有人提著燈籠,佯裝天未亮,而仍舊不停地在索要嗎?
Ū lâng kia̍h teng, ké-chòe thiⁿ bē kng, iáu-kú② teh thó mah?
問:有儂攑燈,假做天未光,猶故咧討嗎?
Ū lâng kia̍h teng, ké-chòe thiⁿ bē kng, iáu-koh teh thó m̄?〖當今的講法〗
有儂攑燈,假做天未光,猶佫咧討毋?

A. Some do so.
問:是有人這樣做。
Iā ū hit hō lâng.
問:也有彼號儂。
Iā ū hit-lō lâng.〖當今的講法〗
也有彼號儂。

Q. When they cannot get payment, what then?
問:如果無法還債,那怎麼辦?
thó nā bô, chiū cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:討若無,就怎樣?

A. They must wait till after the new year and then present their bills again.
答:得要等到新年過後,再追討債務。
Tio̍h thèng-hāu sin-chiaⁿ kè, chiah koh thó.
應:著聽候新正過,則佫討。

Q. When is the new year considered to be over?
問:新年,到什麼時候算過完?
Kàu tī sî, chiah sǹg sin-chiaⁿ ū kè-sin?
問:到底時,則算新正有過身③?
Kàu tī sî, chiah sǹg sin-chiaⁿ kè?〖當今的講法〗
到底時,則算是新正過?

A. About a half a month, viz after the Feast of Lanterns.
答:大約半個月,即元宵節過後。
Tāi-khài poàⁿ ge̍h-ji̍t, siōng-goân kè, chiū bêng-pe̍k.
應:大概半月日,上元過,就明白④。

Q. Is the last day of the year considered to be a festival?
問:大年夜被視為節嗎?
Jī-káu-mî sǹg sī choeh á m̄-sī?
問:二九暝算是節抑毋是?

A. No, it is not.
答:不,不是的。
M̄ sī.
應:毋是。

【添注、說明】

①「款式」:khoán-sit,意思是「看款式」、「看勢」。普通話「看樣子」。
②「iáu-kú」:猶故,意思是「猶佫」,普通話「尚且」。即陣罕咧聽著「iáu-kú」,攏講做「猶佫(iáu-koh)」
③「過身」:kè-sin。佇原文句內底的意思是「過去」。即詞,另外有一个含義是「死去」。
④「明白」:bêng-pe̍k,佇原文句內底的意思是「完成」、「收煞」。

On Rewards and Punishments. 46.
善惡報應(好歹報)

Q. What do the Chinese say with regard to rewards and punishments?
問:中國人認為善報和惡報是怎樣的?
Lūn hó-pháiⁿ pò, Tn̂g-lâng kóng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:論好歹報,唐儂講怎樣?

A. They say that there is a reward for good, and a retribution for evil.
答:他們善有善報,惡有惡報。
In kóng siān iú siān pò, ok iú ok pò.
應:亻因講善有善報,惡有惡報。

Q. Are not bad men afraid of retribution?
問:壞人不怕惡報嗎?
Pháiⁿ-lâng kiám bô kiaⁿ pháiⁿ pò?
問:歹儂敢無驚歹報?

A. They are indeed afraid.
答:卻也害怕。
Khiok ū kiaⁿ.
應:卻①有驚。
Sī ū kiaⁿ lah.〖當今的講法〗
是有驚啦。

Q. Then why do they do wrong?
問:那他們為什麼要作惡?
Nā-sī àn-ni, siáⁿ-sū kiâⁿ pháiⁿ?
問:若是按呢啥事行歹?
Nā-sī án-ni, mih-tāi beh kiâⁿ pháiⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
若是按呢,乜代卜行歹?

A. Because their passions get the better of their conscience.
答:因為私慾勝於良知。
In-ūi su-io̍k iâⁿ liông-sim.
應:因為私慾贏良心。
In-ūi su-io̍k iâⁿ kè liông-sim.〖當今的講法〗
因為私慾贏過良心。

Q. What benefit do they get?
問:做了能得到什麼好處呢?
Chòe liáu, ū sím-mi̍h hó?
問:做了有甚物好?

A. None, they only injure themselves.
答:沒有,反而只會害到自己。
Bô, hoán-tò hāi ka-kī.
應:無,反倒害家己。

Q. What reward is there for doing right?
問:行善的話,能有什麼報應?
Chòe hó, oē siū sím-mi̍h pò?
問:做好會受甚物報?
Chòe hó, oē tit sím-mi̍h pò?〖補記〗
做好,會得甚物報?

A. They have peace and avoid calamity.
答:得到平安,免於災難。
Tit-tio̍h pêng-an, bián siū chai-ē.
應:得著平安,免受災禍。

Q. Do not men like to imitate the good so as to obtain the reward for good?
問:人們怎麼不從善,而去獲得好的報應呢?
Lâng kiám m̄ ài o̍h hó lâng tit-tio̍h hó pò mah?
問:儂敢毋愛學好儂得到好報嗎?
Lâng kiám m̄ ài o̍h hó lâng tit-tio̍h hó pò? 〖當今的講法〗
儂敢毋愛學好儂得到好報?

A. There are some, but they are few.
答:有一些,但很少。
Ū-ê ū, chóng- -sī chió.
應:有的有,總是少。
Ū sī ū, chóng- -sī chió lah.〖補記〗
有是有,總是少啦。

【添注、說明】

①「卻」:khiok,《台日大辭典》解說(kái-soeh)講「表達有條件ê指定或確定ê意思,顛倒khah….」。照即个意思,敢是(káⁿ sī)普通話所講的「雖說……」。總是,即陣的儂攏bōe曉得按呢講囉,不而過,會使換講做「是」。比論講——
甲:「先生hiah嚴,學生敢無驚?」
乙:「驚,是(卻)有驚啦。總是,先生若無佇咧,學生著無咧驚。」

佫比論講,本文上尾彼兩句對話,嘛會當改做即款的句型——

甲:儂敢毋愛學好儂得到好報?
乙:有是(卻)有,總是少啦。

On Marriage. 47.
結婚(嫁娶)

Q. What is the marriage custom in Amoy?
問:在廈門,婚姻習俗是怎樣的?
Tī Ē-mn̂g kè-chhōa ê hong-sio̍k sī sím-mi̍h khoán?
問:佇廈門嫁娶的風俗是甚物款?

A. There are several kinds.
答:好多種可以說的。
Kúi-nā hang thang kóng.
應:幾若項通講。

Q. Can the son decide whom he is to marry?
問:當兒子的能否為自己的婚姻做主?
Chòe kiáⁿ ê lâng thang ka-kī chú-ì beh chhōa sím-mi̍h lâng mah?
問:做囝的儂通家己主意卜娶甚物儂嗎?
Chòe kiáⁿ ê lâng thang ka-kī chú-ì beh chhōa sím-mi̍h lâng m̄?〖當今的講法〗
做囝的儂通家己主意卜娶甚物儂毋?

A. No, neither can the daughter.
答:不,連女兒也不行。
Bōe, cha-bó·-kiáⁿ iā bōe chú-ì beh kè sím-mi̍h lâng.
應:勿會,諸母囝也勿會主意卜嫁甚物儂。

Q. Who then decides?
問:那誰來拿主意呢?
Nā àn-ni sím-mi̍h lâng chú-ì?
問:若是按呢甚物儂主意?

A. It is the parents.
答:是父母親。
Sī pē-bú.
應:是父母。

Q. Who decides in case there are no parents?
問:若沒有父母,是誰來決定?
Nā bô pē-bú, sím-mi̍h lâng chú-ì?
問:若無父母,甚物儂主意?

A. The nearest relatives.
答:跟他最親的親族。
Kap i khah kai-chhin ê lâng.
應:佮伊較該親①的儂。

Q. When a man marries, has he to pay any money?
問:男子要結婚,得下聘金嗎?
Ta-po· nā beh chhōa, tio̍h phèng-kim mah?
問:查夫若卜娶,著聘金嗎?
Ta-po· nā beh chhōa, tio̍h phèng-kim m̄-bián?〖當今的講法〗
查夫若卜娶,著聘金毋免?

A. Yes.
答:是的。
Tio̍h.
應:著。

Q. How much is the betrothal money?
問:訂婚禮金得要多少錢?
Phèng-kim sī jōa-chōe?
問:聘金是偌濟?

A. No settled sum.
答:不一定。
Bô tiāⁿ-tio̍h.
應:無定著。

Q. About how much?
問:大概多少呢?
Lio̍k-sio̍k tio̍h jōa-chōe?
問:略俗②著偌濟?

A. About one hundred dollars.
答:大約一百塊錢。
Iok-lio̍k chiâⁿ pah kho· .
應:約略成百箍。

Q. Can the poor afford so much?
問:窮人家能否給得起這麼多?
Sòng-hiong lâng oē kham-tit chhut hiah chōe mah?
問:喪兇儂會堪得出hiah濟嗎?
Sòng-hiong lâng oē kham-tit chhut hiah chōe m̄?〖當今的講法〗
喪兇③儂會堪得出hiah濟毋?

A. No, they cannot and so many of them dare not think of marriage.
答:不,他們不能,所以許多人想都不敢想要娶老婆。
Bōe, chiah chōe lâng m̄-káⁿ siūⁿ beh chhōa.
應:勿會,遮濟儂毋敢想卜娶。
Bōe, chōe-chōe lâng m̄-káⁿ siūⁿ beh chhōa.
〖當今的講法〗
勿會,濟濟儂毋敢想卜娶。

【添注、說明】

①「該親」:kai-chhin,親屬、族親。
②「略俗」:lio̍k-sio̍k,約略。
③「喪兇」:sòng-hiong,散赤。

On the Buddhist rites for the dead. 48.
普度(1)

Q. When do the Chinese offer the great Buddhist rites for the dead?
問:中國人什麼時候進行普度儀式的祭祀?
Tn̂g-lâng chòe phó·-tō· sím-mi̍h sî?
問:唐儂做普度甚物時?

A. In the seventh month.
答:在七月。
Chhit- -ge̍h.
應:七月。

Q. What is the meaning of Phó·-tō·?
問:普度是什麼意思?
Phó·-tō· sī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:普度是甚物意思?

A. It means that as an act of charity poeple make offerings of food to the spirits who have no descendants of their own to do so.
答:意思是指人們以食物當祭品施捨給那些沒有子孫後代的鬼魂進食的行為。
Ì-sù sī beh siá-sì bô kiáⁿ-sun ê im-kúi lâi chia̍h.
應:意思是卜捨施無囝孫的陰鬼來食。

Q. How is it that the spirits of the dead come to this world?
問:幽靈何以來到陽間呢?
Im-kúi cháiⁿ-iūⁿ oē lâi iông-kan.
問:陰鬼怎樣會來陽間?

A. Men believe that at that time the ruler of the spirits must let them go.
答:人們相信到那個時候鬼王定會放他們(幽靈)出來。
Chiàu lâng phah-sǹg hit-sî kúi-ông tio̍h pàng i chhut- -lâi.
應:照儂拍算彼時鬼王著放伊出來。
Chiàu lâng phah-sǹg hit-sî kúi-ông tio̍h pàng in chhut- -lâi.〖當今的講法〗
照儂拍算彼時鬼王著放亻因出來。

Q. Why must he let them go?
問:為什麼一定要放走他們?
Siáⁿ-sū tio̍h pàng i chhut- -lâi?
問:啥事著放伊出來?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ tio̍h pàng in chhut- -lâi?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣著放亻因出來?

A. He pities them being imprisoned for a whole year, so he lets them out to walk about.
答:憐憫他們被關押了一整年,所以就放他們出去走動走動。
Khó-liân i koaiⁿ chi̍t nî, chiah tio̍h pàng i chhut-lâi kiâⁿ-kiâⁿ.
應:可憐伊關一年,則著放伊出來行行。
Khó-liân in koaiⁿ kui-nn̂g nî, chiah tio̍h pàng in chhut-lâi kiâⁿ-kiâⁿ leh.〖當今的講法〗
可憐亻因關規圇年,則著放亻因出來行行咧。

Q. Where does he release them from?
問:從哪裡把他們放出來呢?
Tùi toh-lo̍h pàng i?
問:對佗落放伊?
Tùi toh-lo̍h pàng in chhut- -lâi?〖當今的講法〗
對佗落放亻因出來?

A. The most think from hell.
答:基本上應該是從地獄。
Khah chōe phah-sǹg tùi tē-ge̍k.
應:較濟拍算對地獄①。
Khah chōe phah-sǹg tùi tē-ga̍k.〖當今的講法〗
應:較濟拍算對地獄。

Q. And if not from hell where then?
問:倘若不從地獄的話,那從哪裡呢?
Nā m̄-sī tē-ge̍k, chiū toh-lo̍h?
問:若毋是對地獄,就佗落?
Nā m̄-sī tùi tē-ga̍k, tio̍h tùi toh-lo̍h?〖當今的講法〗
若毋是對地獄,著對佗落?

A. From Hades.
答:從陰間。
Tùi im-kan.
應:對陰間②。

【添注、說明】

①「地獄」:較早白話字文獻,「地獄」計唸做「tē-ge̍k」較濟。Ah若現此時,計計唸做「tē-ga̍k」。
②「陰間」:im-kan。

ps.「陰間」佮「地獄」無siâng。

食教的儂相信,舊約聖經內底,將墳墓(hûn-bōng)統叫做「陰間」。雅各(Ngá-kok)看無亻因囝約瑟(Iok-sek),掠叫約瑟死囉,伊著感覺真正悲慘,哭講:「我頭毛喙鬚白,白頭毛送烏頭毛,悽慘罪過(chē-kòa)落陰間啊……」照講,犯罪的儂死了後chiah落「陰間」;信主得救的儂死後是去咧「樂園」。「陰間」會當講是一个暫時的拘留所,犯罪的儂,聽候(thèng-hāu)神審判了後,著予儂tàn落去「地獄」。基督教所講的「地獄」,佮佛教無siâng。佛教講的「地獄」是一个受酷刑的所在,總是刑若是滿,猶原會得通倒轉去再生的所在。Ah若是基督聖經所講的「地獄」,號做「Piān-him-lùn的山谷」(官話翻譯:欣嬾子谷),事實是耶路撒冷(Iâ-lō·-sat-léng)城外燒糞埽(pùn-sò)的所在,基督聖經借用「Piān-him-lùn的山谷」即个名號來咧比論「無路用的儂」,親像糞埽按呢予儂tàn-sak,佫糞埽堆內底的臭蟲做一下燒燒去。聖經啟示錄講的,真正的「地獄」,毋佫再是「Piān-him-lùn的山谷」囉,換叫做「火佮硫磺的湖」(官話翻譯:硫磺火湖),是永遠受苦的所在。

聖經啟示錄,所以共「地獄」叫做「火佮硫磺的湖」,是因為魔鬼「撒旦」,嘛號做「老蛇」(官話翻譯「古蛇」)。蛇本然驚硫磺,所以別日魔鬼卜去受刑的所在,著共伊號做「火佮硫磺的湖」。若犯罪的儂,神必定會共亻因審判,假使亻因在生的時陣,定定聽魔鬼的話來犯罪,神著會指示共亻因hiat落去魔鬼受刑的火湖。聖經講,別日「陰間佮hia的死儂」攏著hiat落去火坑仔底。在咱瞭解,「硫磺火湖」嘛號做「第二擺死」。

咱攏知影講,神當初時有警告始祖亞當,叫伊毋通偷食禁果,若是食,定著愛死。後來,亞當chiâⁿ實犯罪,雖罔(sui-bóng)肉體無死,總是靈魂死去。因為神將伊趕出伊甸園,予伊離開神界,所以「頭擺死」是咧講「佮神隔開」。自按呢,咱通知影講,「第二擺死」著是永遠永遠佮神相(saⁿ)隔開。「硫磺火」,是咧比論予儂聽,予儂知影講「第二擺死」是偌呢仔酷刑、偌呢仔艱苦。

總是,陰間佮地獄有差。陰間著是冥界,亡魂陰鬼咧蹛的所在統叫陰間。Ah地獄,是專門咧關hiah-ê在生的時陣罪孽深重的亡魂,通講是陰間的監獄(kaⁿ-ga̍k)佮刑場。

On the Buddbist rites for the dead (Continued) 49.
普度(2)

Q. When the seventh month is up are the spirits willing to return to hell?
問:七月過完,這些幽靈肯返回地獄嗎?
Chhit-ge̍h bêng-pe̍k, chiah-ê kúi kam-goān tò-tńg-khì tē-ge̍k mah?
問:七月明白,遮个鬼甘願倒轉去地獄嗎?
Chhit-ge̍h nā soah, chiah-ê kúi kam-goān tò-tńg-khì tē-ga̍k m̄?〖當今的講法〗
七月若煞,遮个鬼甘願倒轉去地獄毋?

A. No, so the ruler of the spirits sends devils to drive them back.
答:不,因此閻王就差譴鬼子來趕他們回去。
Bô, kúi-ông chiah chhe kúi-á lâi ah i khì.
應:無,鬼王則差鬼仔來押伊去。
Bô, kúi-ông chiah chhe kúi-á lâi ah in khì.〖當今的講法〗
無,鬼王則差鬼仔來押亻因去。

Q. Do they sometimes sulk and wont go?
問:有時會賴著不想回去嗎?
Ū-sî oē tiuⁿ m̄ khì mah?
問:有時會張毋去嗎?
Ū-sî oē tiuⁿ m̄ khì bōe?〖當今的講法〗
有時會張毋去勿會?

A. Their sulking is of no use, as they must certainly go.
答:賴著也沒有用,因為他們必須走。
Tiuⁿ bô-hoat- -tit, tek-khak tio̍h khì.
應:張無法得,的確著去。
Tiuⁿ mā bô-lō·-ēng, tek-khak tio̍h khì.〖補記〗
張嘛無路用,的確著去。

Q. What sorrow do they have to bear when they return to hell?
問:再回到地獄後他們得承擔什麼樣的苦果?
Koh khì tē-ge̍k, tng sím-mi̍h chai-ē?
問:佫去地獄,當①甚物災禍?

A. They are treated as prisoners, and shut up as before.
答:如同從前,像犯人一樣關著。
Chiàu kū koaiⁿ- -teh, chhin-chhiūⁿ kaⁿ-hoān.
應:照舊關咧,親像監犯。
Chiàu-goân koaiⁿ- -leh, chhin-chhiūⁿ kaⁿ-hoān.〖當今的講法〗
照原關咧,親像監犯。

Q. Are they tormented?
問:受到折磨嗎?
Ū siū khó·-chhó· bô?
問:有受苦楚無?
Ū lêng-tî (lêng-tī) bô?〖補記〗
有凌遲(凌治)無?

A. Yes, some ascend the hill of knives, some are thrown into a pan of boiling oil, some pounded with a pestle, some ground between mill stones, and others sawn with saws.
答:有的上刀山,有的下油鍋,有的被棍擊,有的用石磨碾,還有用鋸子鋸等等。
Ū-ê chiūⁿ to-soaⁿ, lo̍h iû-tiáⁿ, ū-ê cheng, û-ê bō, iā-ū hō· lâng kù.
應:有的上刀山,落油鼎;有的舂,有的磨,也有予儂鋸。

Q. when are they liberated?
問:到什麼時候才得以解脫?
Kàu tī-sî chiah oē chhut- -lâi?
問:到底時則會出來?

A. When their punishment is over, they are born again into the world.
答:刑罰結束後,就讓他們重生。
Hêng-hoa̍t liáu, hō· i koh chhut-sì.
應:刑罰了,予伊佫出世。
Hêng-hoa̍t liáu, hō· in koh chhut-sì.〖當今的講法〗
刑罰了,予亻因佫出世。

【添注、說明】

①「當」:tng,意思是「承擔」、「經受」。

On Farming 50
耕作(作穡)

Q. How many crops a year do farmers reap?
問:農民一年能收幾季?
Choh-sit-lâng ta̍k nî siu ū kúi tang?
問:作穡儂逐年收有幾冬?
Choh-sit-lâng chi̍t nî ū-hoat-thang siu kúi tang?〖當今的講法〗
作穡儂一年有法通收幾冬?

A. More commonly two.
答:通常是兩季。
Khah siông nn̄g tang.
應:較常兩冬。

Q. What do they plant?
問:他們種些什麼作物?
Só· chèng sī sím-mi̍h?
問:所種是甚物?

A. Potatoes, rice, barley, and wheat.
答:蕃薯、大米、大麥和小麥。
Han-chû, bí, tōa-be̍h, be̍h-á.
應:蕃薯、米、大麥、麥仔。

Q. Do they plant anything else?
問:還有種其它的什麼嗎?
Iā ū chèng pa̍t-hāng bô?
問:也有種別項無?
Iáu ū chèng pa̍t-hāng bô?〖當今的講法〗
猶有種別項無?

A. Yes, beans hemp, indigo①, sugar cane, and a great many kinds of vegetables.
答:有,也有大豆、麻、靛藍①、甘蔗,以及種類繁多的蔬菜。
Ū, iā-ū tāu-á, môa, chhiⁿ, kam-chià, koh ū chīn chōe hō ê chhài.
應:有,也有豆仔、麻、菁①、甘蔗,佫有盡濟號的菜。

Q. Which of these is the most profitable crop?
問:這些當中哪些是收益最好的作物?
Chiah-ê toh-lo̍h chi̍t hāng chhut-sek khah tōa?
問:遮个佗落一項出息②較大?

A. Rice.
答:大米。
Bí tē-it.
應:米第一。

Q. When is the first crop gathered?
問:第一季什麼時候採收?
Thâu chi̍t tang, tī-sî siu?
問:頭一冬,底時收?

A. In the sixth month.
答:六月。
La̍k- -ge̍h.
應:六月。

Q. When is the second?
問:第二季什麼時候?
Tē-jī tang tī-sî?
問:第二冬底時?

A. In the tenth month.
答:十月。
Cha̍p- -ge̍h.
應:十月。

Q. Is there any other crop beyond these?
問:這之前還有其它季嗎?
Lēng-gōa iáu ū chi̍t tang bô?
問:另外猶有一冬無?

A. Yes, there is the wheat crop.
答:是的,有一季小麥。
Ū, chi̍t tang be̍h.
應:有,一冬麥。

Q. When is this gathered?
問:這個什麼時候採收?
Chit-ê tī-sî siu?
問:即个底時收?

A. In the second or third month.
答:二、三月。
Jī saⁿ ge̍h.
應:二、三月。

Q. Do they plant any thing in the winter?
問:冬天種些什麼不?
Tang-thiⁿ ū chèng sím-mi̍h?
問:冬天有種甚物?

A. Yes. Wheat, barley, taro, and many kinds of vegetables.
答:是的。小麥,大麥,芋頭,以及多種蔬菜。
Sòe-be̍h, tōa-be̍h, ō· , kap chōe hāng ê chhài.
應:細麥、大麥、芋,佮濟項的菜。
Sió-be̍h, tōa-be̍h, ō· , kap chin chōe hāng chhài.〖當今的講法〗
小麥、大麥、芋,佮真濟項菜。

【添注、說明】

①「indigo」:往過(明朝、清朝)佇中國、台灣,所出產的一種重要的植物染料,中文翻譯做「靛藍」。早前,中國的indigo,較濟攏是台灣出產的,會當做染料的植物,主要是相思樹、薯榔(chû-nn̂g)、檳榔(pin-nn̂g)、本菁(pún-chhiⁿ:台灣原生木藍)、蕃菁(hoan-chhiⁿ:印度引種到台灣的木藍)、大菁(tōa-chhiⁿ:山藍)chiah-ê植物。檳榔、本菁、蕃菁、大菁,土話攏叫做「菁」,彼當陣,拍算用「菁」做染料比別項較濟,所以,凡若講著染料(indigo),攏簡省講做「菁」。
②「出息」:chhut-sek,普通話「收益」。即个詞,當今的儂,攏毋捌了了囉。

On the rainy season. 51.
雨季(春水梅雨)

Q. When does the rainy season come each year?
問:春雨每年什麼時候來?
Chhun-hō· ta̍k-nî tī-sî lo̍h?
問:春雨逐年底時落?

A. Most commonly in the second and third month.
答:通常是在二、三月。
Khah siông jī-saⁿ ge̍h.
應:較常二三月。

Q. Would there be distress if the rains did not come?
問:若春雨不下的話,會使人感到痛苦嗎?
Chhun-hō· bô lo̍h, lâng oē kan-khó· bô?
問:春雨無落,儂會艱苦無?
Chhun-hō· bô lo̍h, lâng ē kan-khó· bōe?〖當今的講法〗
春雨無落,儂會艱苦勿會?

A. Certainly.
答:當然!
Tek-khak.
應:的確。
Tek-khak ē.〖補記〗
的確會。

Q. Why?
問:為什麼呢?
Siáⁿ-sū?
問:啥事?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ kóng?〖當今的講法〗
怎樣講?

A. The farmers could not plant their rice.
答:農民無法種水稻。
Choh-sit-lâng bōe pò·-chhân.
應:作穡儂勿會播畻。
Choh-sit-lâng bōe-tit-thang pò·-chhân.〖當今的講法〗
作穡儂勿會得通播畻。

Q. Would there be any other injury?
問:還有沒有其他的害處呢?
問:猶有甚物害無?

A. There would be a famine and dear rice.
答:會有饑荒,米價飛漲。
Oē ki-hng, kùi bí.
應:會饑荒,貴米。
Ē ki-hng, bí ná kùi.〖補記〗
會饑荒,米ná貴。

Q. Why should there be such?
問:為什麼會這樣?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ oē àn-ni?
問:怎樣會按呢?

A. Because if there is no water in the ponds and pools, the crops would die.
答:因為如果池塘沒有水,莊稼就不能活。
In-ūi thâm-khut bô chúi, ngó·-kok oē sí.
應:因為潭窟無水,五穀會死。

Q. Has ever this happened?
問:有發生過這種事嗎?
Ū-sî bat àn-ni mah?
問:有時捌按呢嗎?
Ū-sî pat án-ni bô?〖當今的講法〗
有時捌按呢無?

A. Fortunately seldom.
答:所幸鮮少這樣。
Kai-chài hán-tit àn-ni.
應:佳哉罕得按呢。

Q. When there is drought do the people pray for rain?
問:久旱,人們會祈雨嗎?
Khòng-hān, peh-sìⁿ ū khit hō· bô?
問:抗旱①,百姓有乞雨無?

A. They do when there is a deficiency of rain.
答:雨水不足的時候就祈求。
Hō·-chúi khiàm-ēng chiū khit.
應:雨水欠用就乞。

Q. From whom do they pray?
問:向誰祈求呢?
Tùi chī-chūi khit?
問:對是誰②乞?

A. They go in procession and pray Heaven to send down rain.
答:他們擺開陣列,祈求上蒼降雨。
In chhut-tīn kiû thiⁿ lo̍h-hō· .
應:亻因出陣求天落雨。

Q. What classes pray?
問:什麼階層的人去求雨呢?
Sím-mi̍h téng-hō ê lâng khit hō· ?
問:甚物等號的儂乞雨?

A. All classes, and even the idols do.
答:各階層的都來,甚至神明也參與其中。
Ta̍k téng, liân pu̍t sòa chhut-lâi khit.
應:逐等,連佛sòa③出來乞。
〖當今的講法〗
Ta̍k téng lâng to ū, liân pu̍t soah chhut-lâi khit.
逐等儂都(to)有,連佛soah出來乞。

【添注、說明】

①「抗旱」:khòng-hān, 苦旱(khó·-hoāⁿ、khó·-oāⁿ)、洘旱(khó-oāⁿ)。
②「是誰」:chī-chūi,意思是「甚物儂」、「啥儂」、「siâng」。漳州腔較濟講做「chôa」(拍算是「誰仔(chūi-á)」合音);龍海市角美鎮嘛有儂講做「chiâ」。
③「連佛sòa出來乞」,原底我拍算「sòa」伊寫了有賺誤(tāⁿ-ngō·),毋kú,路尾佫去查較早的白話字文獻,發見往早真正是「sòa」。頂幾日,潮州饒平的網友「Lee」嘛來講饒平的潮語是「sòa」。毋管往過怎樣,總講一句,即陣的儂的確攏講做「連佛soah出來乞」。

On the Feast of Lanterns. 52
元宵節【1】(上元節【1】)

Q. When is the feast of Lanterns?
問:元宵節在什麼時候呢?
Siōng-goân choeh tī-sî?
問:上元節底時?

A. The fifteenth of the first moon.
答:正月十五。
Chiaⁿ-ge̍h cha̍p-gō· .
應:正月十五。

Q. When did the feast of Lan terns originate?
問:元宵節起源於何時?
Siōng-goân choeh tùi toh-lo̍h khí-kiàn?
問:上元節對佗落起見?

A. It began in the Chow dynasty.
答:它始於周朝。
Tùi Chiu-tiâu chiū ū.
應:對周朝就有。

Q. Has it been observed ever since?
問:從那時起,歷代都得到奉行嗎?
Tùi hit sî kàu taⁿ, le̍k-tāi ū siú mah?
問:對彼時到當(taⁿ),歷代有守嗎?
Tùi hit sî kàu taⁿ, le̍k-tāi ū siú bô?〖當今的講法〗
對彼時到當(taⁿ),歷代有守無?

A. Yes, there has never been any interruption.
答:是的,從未中斷過。
Ū, lóng bô hioh.
應:有,攏無歇。

Q. How do the Chinese observe this Feast?
問:這個節,中國人怎麼過?
Chit ê choeh, Tn̂g-lâng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chòe?
問:即个節,唐儂怎樣做?

A. They drink spirits, have plays, light lanterns, and have a good time.
答:他們飲酒、唱戲、點燈、狂歡共慶。
Chia̍h chiú, poaⁿ hì, tiám teng, chòe lāu-jia̍t.
應:食酒、搬戲、點燈、做鬧熱。

Q. Where do they light the lanterns?
問:什麼地方點燈呢?
Sím-mi̍h só·-chāi tiám teng?
問:甚物所在點燈?

A. In the family in the shops, and in the temples.
答:百姓民家、店鋪,以及寺廟都點上了。
Jîn-ke, tiàm-thâu, keng-biō lóng ū tiám.
應:人家①、店頭,宮廟攏有點。

Q. Do people walking in the streets also light them?
問:路上的行人也點燈嗎?
Kè-lō·-lâng iā ū tiám bô?
問:過路儂也有點無?

A. Some do, and some do not.
答:有些有,有些沒有。
Ū-ê ū, ū-ê bô.
應:有的有,有的無。

Q. Do they merely light lanterns at this Feast, or fo they do anything else?
問:上元節他們只是點燈嗎,還有沒有做其它的事呢?
Siōng-goân chheng-chheng tiám teng, iā ū pa̍t-hāng bô?
問:上元清清②點燈,也有別項無?

A. They light large candles in the temples.
答:寺廟裡點大蠟燭。
Keng-biō lāi tiám tōa chhek.
應:宮廟內點大燭。

【添注、說明】

①「人家」:jîn-ke,意思是「民家」、「普通百姓的家庭」。
②「清清」:chheng-chheng,意思是「kan-ta」、「kan-nā」。

On The Feast of Lanterns (Continued). 53
元宵節【2】(上元節【2】)

Q. Is there any superstition connected with the Feast of Lanterns?
問:元宵節有什麼迷信儀式嗎?
Chòe siōng-goân ū sím-mi̍h khiàn-sńg mah?
問:做上元有甚物儙傸①嗎?
Chòe siōng-goân ū sím-mi̍h khiàn-sńg bô?〖當今的講法〗
做上元有甚物儙傸無?

A. Yes, some go to the temple and beg for the turtle shaped cakes, in the hopes of having sons.
答:有。有些人到寺廟裡頭乞龜,盼望能夠得子傳宗。
Ū, ū lâng khì keng-biō khit-ku, ǹg-bāng oē siⁿ ta-po· sun.
應:有,有儂去宮廟乞龜②,眏望會生大夫孫。

Q. Is there any other?
問:還有其他的嗎?
Iáu ū sím-mi̍h?
問:猶有甚物?

A. There are some also that heap up fuel in front of the temples and burn it.
答:有些在寺廟前堆起柴火並燃燒,辦起「過火」儀式。
Iā ū lâng thia̍p chhâ tī keng-kháu sio-hé-phûn.
應:也有儂疊柴佇宮口燒火盆②。

Q. Why do they do this?
問:幹嗎這樣做呢?
Siáⁿ-sū àn-ni?
問:啥事按呢?
Mih-tāi án-ni?〖當今的講法〗
乜代按呢?

A. The idea is that they want to burn away their past misdeeds.
答:意思是,要將過去的壞事情一燒了之。
Ì-sù sī ài kū ê pháiⁿ-tāi sio-lio③ khì.
應:意思是愛舊的歹代燒燒去。

Q. Is there any other superstition?
問:還有什麼迷信禮俗呢?
Iáu ū sím-mi̍h khiàn-sńg?
問:猶有甚物儙傸?

A. Some bring some of the burning cinders home in the tongs.
答:有的人夾一些個燒紅的木炭回家。
Ū lâng ngeh hé-thoàⁿ jia̍t-jia̍t tòa- -tò-lâi.
應:有儂夾火炭熱熱蹛倒來。

Q. Why do they do so?
問:他們為什麼這樣做?
Siáⁿ-sū àn-ni?
問:啥事按呢?
Mih-tāi án-ni?〖當今的講法〗
乜代按呢?

A. Their intention is to make the family prosperous and fortunate.
答:他們目的是指望家庭能夠富裕興旺、行好運。
Ì-sù sī ài ke-lāi heng-ōng chō-hòa-sī.
應:意思是愛家內興旺造化是④。

Q. How long does the Feast of Lanterns last?
問:元宵過節持續多久呢?
Chòe siōng-goân jōa-kú?
問:做上元偌久?

A. About from sunset till midnight.
答:約莫從日落到午夜。
Iok-lio̍k tùi ji̍t-lo̍h kàu poàⁿ-mî.
應:約略對日落到半暝。

Q. Do they worship the idols at this Feast?
問:元宵這個節日,拜菩薩嗎?
Siōng-goân ū kèng pu̍t bô?
問:上元有敬⑤佛無?

A. Yes, the gods of the Three Boundaries.
答:是的,敬拜三官大帝。
Ū, hàu Sam-kài-kong
應:有,孝⑥三界公⑦。

Q. What are these three boundaries?
問:三官大帝是什麼?
Sam-kài sī sím-mi̍h?
問:三界是甚物?

A. First is Heaven, second is Earth, and the third is Water.
答:其一是天、其二是地,其三是水。
It sī thiⁿ, jī sī tōe, sam sī chúi.
應:一是天,二是地,三是水。

【添注、說明】

①「儙傸」:khiàn-sńg,迷信。
②「乞龜」:khit-ku,有的所在講「求龜」,閩南民間風俗古例,信徒去宮廟下願的時陣,對佛祖、神明供奉(kèng-hōng)紅龜粿,乞求神佛保庇達成願望,隔轉年,chiah攢(chhoân)雙倍去宮廟答謝。
③「燒燒去」:自底講 sio-sio- -khì,唸較緊咧,著變做sio-lio- -khì。
④「造化是」:chō-hòa-sī,得好運,行好運。造化:命運。造化毋是:行著衰運、拄著歹運。
⑤「敬」:kèng,敬拜、供奉。漳州話較捷(chia̍p)用。
⑥「孝」:hàu,敬拜、供奉。同安話較捷(chia̍p)用。
⑦「三界公」:三官大帝,掌管天、地、水即三界的神,也著是「天官」、「地官」佮「水官」,閩南儂講「三界公」,客儂講「三界爺」,又稱「三元大帝」。道教第一普遍的講法,講天官大帝是「堯」,地官大帝「舜」,水官大帝「禹」三位賢君。另外佫有儂講,是三清道祖,化身三元之神,發落天、地、水三界。道教所講「天官賜福、地官赦罪、水官解厄。」意思是講三官對陽間的儂、陰間的亡魂,攏會當主意,對in有「賜福、赦罪、解厄」的權力。三元節,著是「三元大帝」的生日,民間計計有做節敬拜。咱儂正月十五上元節,是天官的生日;七月十五中元節,是地官生日,普渡孤魂陰鬼;水官生日佇十月十五,號做下元節,卜請神明替運勢無通好的儂消災解厄(kái-eh)。

On Clothes. 54.
衣服(衫褲)

Q. Where does silk come from?
問:絲綢從哪裡來的呢?
Si tùi toh-lo̍h lâi?
問:絲對佗落來?

A. Sze-chwan, Cheh-kiang, and Canton.
答:四川、浙江、廣東。
Sù-chhoan, Chiat-kang, Kńg-tang.
應:四川、浙江、廣東。

Q. Where is grass cloth made?
問:夏布是哪裡出產的?
Joa̍h-pò· toh-lo̍h chhut?
問:熱布①佗落出?

A. The good is from Kwang-si, and the middling is native made.
答:好的出自江西,中等的則是本地生產的。
Hó- -ê tùi Kang-sai, tiong- -ê tùi pún-tōe.
應:好的對江西,中的對本地。

Q. Do the Chinese wear flannel?
問:中國人穿法蘭絨嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ū chhēng chúi-nî bô?
問:唐儂有穿水呢②無?

A. Formerly they did not, but now they do.
答:以前沒有,但現在就有了。
Chá bô, taⁿ chiū ū.
應:早無,當(taⁿ)就有。

Q. How is it that they did not do so formerly?
問:為什麼以前沒有?
Cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chá bô?
問:怎樣早無?

A. There was none of native make, and the foreign had not yet been imported.
答:本地不生產,且外國尚未有進口過來的。
Pún-tōe bô chhut, gōa-kok iáu-bē lâi.
應:本地無出,外國猶未來。

Q. What class of people wears it now?
問:現在什麼樣的人在穿呢?
Hiān-sî sím-mi̍h hō ê lâng chhēng?
問:現時甚物號的儂穿?
Hiān-sî sím-mi̍h hō ê lâng teh chhēng?〖當今的講法〗
現時甚物款的儂咧穿?

A. The better off.
答:有錢人。
Khah ū-chîⁿ ê lâng.
應:較有錢的儂。

Q. How do those do, who do not wear it, when they are cold?
問:如果感覺冷,不穿這個(呢),那怎麼辦呢?
Lâng nā koâⁿ, bô chhēng nî, beh cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:儂若寒,無穿呢,卜怎樣?

A. They put on more clothes.
答:多穿衣。
Ke chhēng saⁿ.
應:加穿衫。

Q. How do the poor do?
問:窮人怎樣辦呢?
Sòng-hiong-lâng cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:喪兇儂怎樣?

A. They must endure the cold.
答:只能忍受寒冷。
Tio̍h tam-tng koâⁿ.
應:著擔當寒。

Q. What do the common people wear?
問:老百姓穿什麼呢?
Pêng-siông-lâng chhēng sím-mi̍h?
問:平常儂穿甚物?

A. They generally wear blue cotton cloth.
答:他們通常穿靛青色的棉布衫。
Khah siông chhēng chhiⁿ pò·-saⁿ.
應:較常穿青布衫。

〖添注、說明〗

①「熱布」:Joa̍h-pò·,摕來teh做熱天衫褲的布。
②「水呢」:chúi-nî,法蘭絨。

On clothes (Continued) 55.
著裝(穿插:chhēng-chhah)

Q. Do the dresses of the mandarins and of the people differ?
問:官府與百姓著裝有什麼不同嗎?
Koaⁿ-hú kap peh-sìⁿ chhēng saⁿ ū saⁿ-tâng① bô?
問:官府佮百姓穿衫有相同無?
Koaⁿ-hú kap peh-sìⁿ chhēng saⁿ ū sio-siâng bô? 〖當今的講法〗
問:官府佮百姓穿衫有相同無?

A. They do.
答:不同。
Bô saⁿ-tâng.
應:無相同。
Bô sio-siâng.〖當今的講法〗
無相同。

Q. Can you tell a mandarin’s rank by his dress?
問:能否從著裝上看出官吏的級別?
Khoàⁿ koaⁿ-hú só· chhēng ê saⁿ oē chai i ê koâiⁿ-kē mah?
問:看官府所穿的衫會知伊的懸下嗎?
Khoàⁿ koaⁿ-hú só· chhēng ê saⁿ oē chai i ê koâiⁿ-kē bōe?〖當今的講法〗
看官府所穿的衫會知伊的懸下勿會?

A. If he is in his official robes you can, and if not you cannot.
答:如果穿上官服的話那就能知道,否則就不知道了。
Chhēng koaⁿ-ho̍k chiū chai, nā bô chiū bōe.
應:穿官服就知,若無就勿會。
Chhēng koaⁿ-ho̍k tio̍h chai, nā bô tio̍h m̄-chai.〖補記〗
穿官服著知,若無著毋知。

Q. Do the official dresses of the civil and military mandarins differ?
問:文、武官員的官服有差別嗎?
Bûn-koaⁿ bú-koaⁿ ê koaⁿ-ho̍k ū cheng-chha bô?
問:文官、武官的官服有增差無?

A. I dont know. I must study the matter and then I shall know.
答:不知道。必須去研究才能得知。
M̄ bat, káng-kiù chiū chai.
應:毋捌。講究就知。
M̄ bat, ū káng-kiù tio̍h ē chai.〖補記〗
毋捌。有講究著會知。

Q. Can you tell what business a man belongs to by his dress?
問:從著裝上能否看出一個人是從事什麼生意的呢?
Khoàⁿ seng-lí-lâng chhēng saⁿ oē chai i chòe sím-mi̍h seng-lí mah?
問:看生理儂穿衫會知伊做甚物生理嗎?
Khoàⁿ seng-lí-lâng chhēng saⁿ oē chai i chòe sím-mi̍h seng-lí bōe?〖當今的講法〗
看生理儂穿衫會知伊做甚物生理勿會?

A. Some you can, and some you cannot.
答:有些看得出來,有些不能。
Ū-ê khoàⁿ oē chhut, ū-ê bōe.
應:有的看會出,有的勿會。

Q. Which are those that you can tell?
問:哪些較容易辨認呢?
Sím-mi̍h hō khoàⁿ khah oē chhut?
問:甚物號看較會出?
Sím-mi̍h khoán- -ê khoàⁿ khah ē chhut?〖當今的講法〗
甚物款的看較會出?

A. The pig butcher, the seller of fish, the rice dealer, the opium seller, and the fortune teller.
答:殺豬的,賣魚的,開米鋪的,賣鴉片的,以及算命先生。
Thâi-ti- -ê, bōe hî, khui bí-tiàm, bōe a-phiàn, khoàⁿ-miā- -ê.
應:刣豬的,賣魚、開米店、賣鴉片,看命的。

【添注、說明】

①「相同」:往時(éng-sî)有講做「saⁿ-tâng」,毋kú,現時佇廈門攏講做「sio-siâng」、「siâng」;同安腔講做「saⁿ-sâng」、「sâng」。總是,毋管是「sâng」抑是「siâng」,計是合音字,是「相(saⁿ / sio)」佮「同(tâng)」的合音。

On The Feast of Tombs. 56.
清明節【1】(清明節【1】)

Q. Why do the Chinese observe the Feast of tombs?
問:中國人為何過清明節?
Tiong-kok-lâng chòe chhiⁿ-miâ sī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:中國儂做清明節是甚物意思?

A. The greatest reason if for the repairing of the graves, an the worshipping of their ancestors.
答:主要是修墓以及祭墓。
Khah tōa-bīn sī siu bōng, hàu bōng.
應:較大面①是修墓、孝墓。
Khah chōe sī siu bōng, hàu bōng.〖當今的講法〗
較濟是修墓、孝墓。

Q. How do they worship them?
問:是怎樣祭拜的?
Hàu bōng sī cháiⁿ-iūⁿ?
問:孝墓是怎樣?

A. They burn incense and spread out eatables in front of the grave for the dead to partake of.
問:燒香,在墓前擺上食物供死者享用。
Sio-hiuⁿ, pâi mi̍h tī bōng chêng hō· sí-lâng chia̍h.
問:燒香,排物佇墓前予死儂食。

Q. What do they usually spread in front?
問:通常擺什麼呢?
Khah siông pâi sím-mi̍h?
問:較常排甚物?

A. Spirits, pork, fish, fowl, softcake, hardcake &c.
答:酒、肉、魚、雞、粿、餅等等。
Chiú, bah, hî, koe, ké, piáⁿ chiah-ê.
應:酒、肉、魚、雞、粿(糕)、餅遮个。

Q. Do they belive the dead come and eat?
問:他們相信死人會來吃嗎?
In sìn sí-lâng chia̍h mah?
問:亻因信死儂食嗎?
In sìn sí-lâng lâi chia̍h m̄?〖當今的講法〗
亻因信死儂來食毋?

A. In a general way they believe. Some believe that they partake only of the flavour of the food.
答:還蠻相信的,有些人認為他們只是品嚐那個味道而已。
Hàm-hàm sìn, ū lâng phah-sǹg sîn lâi chia̍h hit-ê bī.
應:泛泛信,有儂拍算神來食彼个味。
Hàm-hàm sìn, ū lâng phah-sǹg sîn sī lâi chia̍h hit-ê bī niā.〖當今的講法〗
泛泛信,有儂拍算神是來食彼个味niā。

Q. Whilst they are worshipping, do they say anything?
問:祭拜時,人們有說些什麼嗎?
Teh hàu, lâng ū kóng sím-mi̍h?
問:咧孝,儂有講甚物?
Teh hàu ê sî-chūn, lâng ū kóng sím-mi̍h bô?〖當今的講法〗
問:咧孝的時陣,儂有講甚物無?

A. Yes, they chiefly pray that the dead may come and protect their families.
答:是的,他們主要是祈求往生者能夠來保佑他們的家庭。
Ū, tāi-khài sī kiû i tio̍h lâi pó-pì i ê ke.
應:有,大概是求伊著來保庇②伊的家。
Ū, tāi-khài sī kiû i tio̍h lâi pó-pì in choân-ke.〖當今的講法〗
有,大概是求伊著來保庇亻因全家。

Q. Do the Chinese really believe that spirits can hear what is said?
問:中國人真的相信那神能聽到他們所說的嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng chin-chiàⁿ sìn-kiò sîn oē thiaⁿ-kìⁿ i ê oē bōe?
問:唐儂真正信叫③神會聽見伊的話勿會?
Tn̂g-lâng chin-chiàⁿ sìn-kiò sîn oē thiaⁿ-kìⁿ in ê oē m̄?〖當今的講法〗
問:唐儂真正信講神會聽見亻因的話毋?

A. Yes, they belive more thoroughly in this than they do in the idols.
答:是的,他相信這個更甚於相信神明。
Ū, i sìn che pí sìn pu̍t khah thiám.
應:有,伊信這比信佛較悿。
Hēⁿ lah, in sìn che pí sìn pu̍t khah thiám.〖當今的講法〗
喺啦,亻因信這比信佛較悿。

【添注、說明】

①「較大面」:khah tōa-bīn,意思是「大多數」、「大部分」。
②「保庇」:廈門腔講「pó-pì」,漳州海澄腔講「pó·-pì」。
③「信叫」:「sìn-kiò」,相信。「叫」,是「想講」(普通話「以為」)的意思。「叫」,會得佮一寡語詞組合,比論講「掠叫(lia̍h-kiò)」(eg. 起頭我掠叫是汝卜去,路尾chiah知去的儂是伊。)、「想叫」(eg. 唐儂煮食偷趁,有想叫是著抑毋著?--《英華口才集(廈門白話手冊)對話36》)、「叫是」(eg. 看汝開錢攏無撙節,我叫是恁兜真有錢)。

On The Feast of Tombs (Continued) 57.
清明節【2】(清明節【2】)

Q. When the son worships his father, what does he say?
問:兒子祭拜父親時,跟他說些什麼?
Hau-siⁿ hàu lāu-pē, kap i kóng sím-mi̍h oē?
問:後生孝老父,佮伊講甚物話?

A. He says, your unfilial son worships you today, I pray you to preserve me.
答:他說,您的不孝子今天來祭拜您,求您老佑護我。
Lí ê put-hàu-kiáⁿ kin-ná-ji̍t lâi hàu lí, kiû lí chiàu-kò· góa.
應:汝的不孝囝今仔日來孝汝,求汝照顧我。

Q. How does think he will protect him?
問:他認為會怎樣佑護他呢?
I phah-sǹg cháiⁿ-iūⁿ chiàu-kò· i?
問:伊拍算怎樣會照顧伊?

A. He thinks that his spirit in Hades will plan for him and take care of him.
答:他認為他父親的靈魂在陰間能設法佑護他。
Phah-sǹg i ê sîn tī im-kan thòe i siat-hoat pó-pì i.
答:拍算伊的神佇陰間替伊設法保庇伊。

Q. If the father has been a very bad man when he died, does the son think he has power to protect him?
問:如果當父親的是大奸大惡死去,兒子認為他能夠得到佑護嗎?
Lāu-pē pún toā pháiⁿ-lâng sí- -khì, kiáⁿ phah-sǹg i oē chiàu-kò· i mah?
問:老父本大歹儂死去,囝拍算伊會保庇伊嗎?
Lāu-pē pún toā pháiⁿ-lâng sí- -khì, kiáⁿ phah-sǹg i ū hoat thang chiàu-kò· i bô?〖當今的講法〗
老父本大歹儂死去,囝拍算伊有法通保庇伊無?

A. He thinks that after the rites for the dead have been performed, his badness has vanished, and he can then protect.
答:他認為,死者的超度法事完成後,其罪惡就消失,便可以得到佑護。
I phah-sǹg kong-tek chòe liáu, pháiⁿ siau- -khì, chiū oē pó-pì.
應:伊拍算功德①做了,歹消去,就會保庇。

Q. Must the whole family attend at the worship at the grave?
問:祭墓時,一定得全家人齊整嗎?
Hàu-bōng tio̍h kui ke lóng khì mah?
問:孝墓著規家攏去嗎?
Hàu-bōng tio̍h kui ke lóng khì m̄?〖當今的講法〗
孝墓著規家攏去毋?

A. If the grave is near they do, if it is remote they don’t.
答:如果墓地近,那便是;如果遠就不是這樣。
Bōng nā kūn chiū ū, hn̄g chiū bô.
應:墓若近就有,遠就無。

Q. When the family is unfortunate do they blame the spirits for not preserving them?
問:如果家道衰落,他們會牽怒於神靈沒有庇佑嗎?
Ke lo̍h-po̍h, ū hiâm sîn bô pó-pì in bô?
問:家落泊②,有嫌③神無保庇亻因無?

A. They do, they say their fathers have lost their power to save.
答:是的,他們說祖靈不靈驗。
Ū, kóng chó·-kong bô siàⁿ.
應:有,講祖公無聖④。

【添注、說明】

①「做功德」:chòe kong-tek,閩南民間風俗,儂死後,家內儂請司公來做法事,替死儂消災解厄,替伊消去在生的時所做的罪業,加添伊的功德,予伊佇陰間會較快活,較免受苦,較緊出地獄,佫通較緊去投胎轉世。
②「落泊」:lo̍h-po̍h,落魄、衰敗。會使講儂,嘛會使講家運。
③「嫌」:hiâm,佇遮意思是「怨」。
④「聖」:siàⁿ,靈聖。官話較濟講「靈驗」。

On the Buddhist rites for the dead. 58.
超度施捨(做普度)

Q. Who decides the men shall be born again?
問:誰決定了人的重生?
Sím-mi̍h lâng chú-ì hō· i koh chhut-sì?
問:甚物儂主意予伊佫出世?

A. The emperor of Hades.
答:閻王爺。
Giâm-lô-ông
應:閻羅王。

Q. Is there any difference in their ranks when they are born again?
問:重生的話是否存在貴賤之別?
Koh chhut-sì ū hun-piat kùi chiān bô?
問:佫出世有分別貴賤無?

A. Those that were very bad in a former life are born again to bad fortune, and those that were good to a good noe.
答:那些生前極惡的人重生也命苦;而那些善良的則有好的命運。
Ū, ū-ê siⁿ chêng chòe tōa-pháiⁿ, chiū hō· i pháiⁿ-miā, ū-ê chêng-sì chòe hó, hō· i hó-miā.
應:有,有的生前做大歹,就予伊歹命;有的前世做好,予伊好命。

Q. How many births do they go through, till they have no more.
問:要重生幾回,才不再重生?
Tio̍h chhut-sì kúi pái, chiah bô koh chhut-sì?
問:著出世幾擺,才無佫出世?

A. When they have got free from all sin, then they enter the Western heaven, a place of supreme joy.
答:當他們不再受任何罪(脫卻所以的罪),那他們便到達西天極樂世界。
Thoat kàu bô chōe, chiah ji̍p Se-thian ke̍k-lo̍k ê só·-chāi.
應:脫到無罪,則入西天極樂的所在。

Q. Do the people perform the rites for the dead through fear of the spirits?
問:人們為亡者做普度儀式是出於害怕鬼魂嗎?
Peh-sìⁿ phó·-tō· sī kiaⁿ kúi á m̄-sī?
問:百姓普度是驚鬼抑毋是?

A. It is through fear and also through pity (that they offer them).
答:那是出於恐懼,也出於憐憫(人們施捨鬼魂)。
Iā ū kiaⁿ, iā ū khó-liân, nn̄g hāng lóng ū.
應:也有驚,也有可憐,兩項攏有。

Q. What consequences do men think would follow if they did not perform the rites?
問:人們認為假如不做普度的話會有後果嗎?
Lâng phah-sǹg bô phó·-tō· ū koan-hē bô?
問:儂拍算無普度有關係無?

A. They fear they would not be happy.
答:他們害怕不得平安。
Kiaⁿ-liáu bōe pêng-an.
應:驚了①勿會平安。
Kiaⁿ kóng bōe pêng-an.〖當今的講法〗
驚講勿會平安。

【添注、說明】

①「驚了怎樣怎樣……」:即句話,當今無儂會曉按呢講囉,計是講做「驚怎樣怎樣……」、或者是「驚講怎樣怎樣……」較濟。

On the Dragon Boat Festival. 59.
端午節【1】(五日節【1】)

Q. When is the Feast of the Dragon boat observed?
問:什麼時候過端午節?
Gō·-ji̍t-choeh tī-sî chòe?
問:五日節底時做?

A. On the fifth day of the fifth month.
答:在五月初五。
Sī gō·-ge̍h chhoe gō·.
應:是五月初五。

Q. What is the origin of this festival?
問:這個節日起源是怎樣的(起源於何處)?
Tùi toh-lo̍h khí?
問:對佗落起?

A. In the times of the Eastern Chow dynasty.
答:東周王朝的時代。
Tong Chiu khí.
應:東周起。

Q. Is there any story connected with it?
問:是否有跟它相關的典故?
Ū sím-mi̍h kò·-sū mah?
問:有甚物故事嗎?
Ū sím-mi̍h kò·-tián bô?〖補記〗
有甚物故典①無?

A. There is. Khut-goân a loyal minister drowned himself in the river, and men go and look for his body.
答:有。屈原盡忠投江而亡,人們前往尋找其屍體。
Ū, in-ūi Khut Goân chīn-tiong tâu kang sí, lâng beh chhē i ê sin-si.
答:有。因為屈原盡忠投江死,儂卜揣伊的身屍。

Q. Why did he drown himself?
問:他為何投江自盡?
Siáⁿ-sū beh tâu kang sí?
問:啥事卜投江死?
Mih-tāi beh tâu kang sí?〖當今的講法〗
乜代卜投江死?

A. Because he gave advice to the emperor, who would not listen to him, so in vexation he committed suicide.
答:因為他進諫皇帝不受採納,因此鬱悶尋短。
In-ūi kan-chèng hông-tè m̄ thiaⁿ, ka-kī ut-būn chhē sí-lō· .
應:因為干證②皇帝毋聽,家己鬱悶揣死路。

Q. After his death was the emperor sorry?
問:他死後,皇帝是否感覺歉疚?
I sí liáu, hông-tè ū hoân-ló bô?
問:伊死了,皇帝有煩惱無?

A. Very sorry, so he sent men to serch for him.
答:相當懊悔,並派人去尋找。
Ū chin hoân-ló, chiah kah lâng khì chhē.
應:有真煩惱,則教③儂去揣。

Q. Did they find the body?
問:後來找到屍體了嗎?
Āu- -lâi ū chhē- -tio̍h bô?
問:後來有揣著無?

A. No, the river was large, and so they could not find it.
答:沒有,江水過於洶湧,找不到了。
Bô, kang-chúi tōa, bô thang chhē.
應:無,江水大,無通揣。

【添注、說明】

①「故典」:kò·-tián,官話「典故」。
②「干證」:kan-chèng,意思是證明、證據。佇遮意思是「建議、意見」。
③「教」:kah,差教、派、命令。「教儂去揣」,當今的儂拍算無幾个會曉按呢講囉。「教」kan-ta留佇咧一寡俗語話內底,像「教豬教狗,毋值家己走」(差教別儂做代誌,較輸家己動手去做)。講著「教」,有一个相牽連的語詞「教伊莫」(kah-i-bo̍h),現時漳州海澄腔猶佫捷捷(chia̍p-chia̍p)咧講,《台日大辭典》嘛有記載,這意思是「管待伊(koán-thāi- -i)」、「插插伊(chhap-chhap- -i)」。

On The Dragon Boat Festival (Continued) 60.
端午節【2】(五日節【2】)

Q. Do they row the Dragon boat throughout the Empire, or only in one place?
問:划龍舟是舉國皆有,還是僅僅一個地方而已?
Thong kok ta̍k só·-chāi lóng ū pê, á-sī chi̍t só·-chāi nā-tiāⁿ?
問:通國逐所在攏有耙,抑是一所在但定?
Thong kok ta̍k só·-chāi lóng ū pê lêng-chûn, á-sī chi̍t só·-chāi nā-niā?〖補記〗
通國逐所在攏有耙龍船,抑是一所在但定?

A. Throughout the eighteen provinces.
答:十八個省都有。
Cha̍p-poeh séng lóng ū.
應:十八省攏有。

Q. Who arranges for the rowing every year?
問:每年誰來組織划龍舟?
Ta̍k nî sím-mi̍h lâng siat-hoat tio̍h pê?
問:逐年甚物儂設法著耙?

A. The more prominent and those who are well to do.
答:那些地位較顯赫,較有錢的人。
Khah ū miâ-siaⁿ, khah ū chîⁿ ê lâng.
應:較有名聲,較有錢的儂。

Q. Do those who race get prizes?
問:賽龍舟有獎賞嗎?
Tàu lêng-chûn ū thang siúⁿ bô?
問:鬥龍船有通賞無?

A. Yes, there is always a prize to be seized when the goal is reached.
答:有,到達後總有搶標①的。
Ū, siông-siông chhiúⁿ-pio.
應:有,常常搶標。

Q. Where is the prize stuck up?
問:「標」插在哪裡?
Pio chhah tī toh-lo̍h?
問:標插在佗落?

A. On a junk that is anchored in the river.
答:插在船上(一種中國式的帆船),而船則停泊在河邊。
Chhah tī chûn- -nih, pha tī khoe- -nih.
應:插佇船裡,拋佇溪裡。

Q. What does the prize consist of?
問:標(獎品)是些東西呢?
Pio sī sím-mi̍h mi̍h?
問:標是甚物物?
Pió sī sím-mi̍h mi̍h-kiāⁿ?〖當今的講法〗
標是甚物物件?

A. A silver medal, a bracelet a handkerchief, a fan, or such like.
答:銀牌、手鐲、手帕、扇子等等類似的東西。
Gûn-pâi, chhiú-khoân, chhiú-kun, sìⁿ, chiah-ê.
應:銀牌、手環、手巾、扇,遮个。

Q. How many days do they row?
問:划幾天呢?
Pê kúi ji̍t?
問:耙幾日?

A. Three days.
答:三天。
Saⁿ ji̍t.
應:三日。

Q. Do they ever quarrel and fight during these races?
問:賽龍舟曾有過吵架鬥毆嗎?
Tàu lêng-chûn bat oan-ke saⁿ-phah bô?
問:鬥龍船別冤家相拍無?

A. Nearly every year they do so.
答:幾乎年年有。
Chha-put-to ta̍k nî ū.
應:差不多逐年有。

①「搶標」:chhiúⁿ-pio,鬥龍船的時陣,終點有設一个標。若是得著標,著是頭名(標,本身著有縛一寡賞品佇咧)。各隊下命划(kò),攏是為著卜得標。為著得標,有時會相爭、相搶,khiám-chhái起冤家、相拍 iah嘛敢(iah-mā-káⁿ)。

On Kong-tek. 61.
做道場/做法事【1】(做功德【1】)

Q. What it the meaning of these two words Kong tek?
問:「功」、「德」這兩個字是什麼意思?
“Kong”, “tek” nn̄g jī sī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:「功」、「德」兩字是甚物意思?

A. Kong means merit, and tek means character.
答:「功」是指功勞,「德」是指品行。
Kong, sī kong-lô; tek, sī tek-hēng.
應:「功」是功勞,「德」是德行。

Q. Why do men observe kong tek (i. e. rites for the dead)?
問:為什麼要做功德(即為死者所做的一種儀式)呢?
In-ūi siáⁿ-sū chòe kong-tek?
問:因為啥事卜做功德?

A. Because they are afraid the dead have gone to hell, where they are suffering, an so they observe these rites.
答:因為他們怕死者到地獄後,在那裡受苦,所以為他做功德。
Kiaⁿ-liáu lâng sí, khì tē-ge̍k siū khó·, chiah tio̍h kā i chòe kong-tek.
應:驚了儂死,去地獄受苦,則著共伊做功德。
Kiaⁿ-kóng lâng sí, khì tē-ga̍k siū khó·, chiah tio̍h kā i chòe kong-tek.〖當今的講法〗
驚講儂死,去地獄受苦,則著共伊做功德。

Q. Is there any good in observing them?
問:做功德有好處嗎?
Chòe kong-tek ū sím-mi̍h kong-hāu mah?
問:做功德有甚物功效嗎?
Chòe kong-tek ū sím-mi̍h kong-hāu m̄?〖當今的講法〗
做功德有甚物功效毋?

A. They think there is, but in reality there in none.
答:他們認為有,但其實並非如此。
Chiàu in phah-sǹg ū, kî-si̍t sī khang-khang.
應:照亻因拍算有,其實是空空。

Q. What is the good?
問:好處是什麼呢?
Kong-hāu kàu toh-lo̍h?
問:功效到佗落?

A. (They think) their relatives are let out of hell, and need not suffer any more.
答:(他們認為)可以讓死去的親人出地獄,不用再受苦。
Hō· chhin-lâng chhut tē-ge̍k, m̄-sái kan-khó· .
應:予親儂出地獄,毋使①艱苦。
Hō· chhin-lâng chhut tē-ga̍k, m̄-sái kan-khó· .〖當今的講法〗
予親儂出地獄,毋使(毋免)艱苦。

Q. When they get out of hell, where do they go to?
問:出地獄後去哪裡呢?
Chhut tē-ge̍k, kàu toh-lo̍h?
問:出地獄,到佗落?
Chhut tē-ga̍k, kàu toh-lo̍h?〖當今的講法〗
出地獄,到佗落?

A. The ruler of Hades causes them to be born again into the world.
答:閻王爺使他們獲得重生來到世間。
Giâm-lô-ông hō· i koh chhut-sì.
應:閻羅王予伊佫出世。
Giâm-lô-ông hō· in koh chhut-sì.〖當今的講法〗
閻羅王予亻因佫出世。

Q. In what fashion do they come again into the world?
問:以什麼方式重生於世?
Koh chhut-sì sím-mi̍h khoán?
問:佫出世甚物款?

A. Some are honourable in life, others mean, some are beasts, some bires and such like.
答:有的成為顯貴,有的低賤,有的為獸,有的當鳥禽,諸如此類的。
Ū-ê chòe chun-kùi, ū-ê chòe hā-chiān, ū-ê chòe cheng-siⁿ chiáu-chiah chiah-ê.
應:有的做尊貴,有的做下賤,有的做精牲、鳥隻,遮个。

【添注、說明】

①「毋使」:m̄-sái ,意思是「毋免」。當(taⁿ)較罕得聽著「毋使」囉,kan-ta用佇咧一寡疑問句內底。比論講——
甲:汝行李hiah濟,使毋使我共汝鬥摕?
乙:毋免啦,我家己摕,著好。

做道場/做法事【2】(做功德【2】)

Q. Who performs these rites for the dead?
問:誰來為逝者做法事?
Sím-mi̍h lâng thòe i chòe kong-tek?
問:甚物儂替伊做功德?

A. They are carried out entirely by Buddhist priests.
答:完全是請和尚(法師)來做。
Lóng-sī hê-siūⁿ thòe i chòe.
應:攏是和尚替伊做。

Q. How do they observe them?
問:如何行法事呢?
Ēng sím-mi̍h hoat-tō· lâi chòe?
問:用甚物法度來做?

A. They recite out of their books, perform rites, and worship the idols.
答:他們念經、拜懺、敬拜菩薩。
Liām-keng, pài-chhàm, kèng phô·-sat.
應:念經、拜懺①、敬菩薩。

Q. Out of what books do they recite?
問:念什麼經呢?
Liām sím-mi̍h keng?
問:念甚物經?

A. From idolatrous books from India.
答:來自印度的佛經。
Tùi Ìn-tō· lâi ê hu̍t-keng.
應:對印度來的佛經。

Q. To whom do they recite out of these books?
問:念經給誰聽呢?
Liām-keng beh hō· chī-chūi thiaⁿ?
問:念經卜予是誰聽?

A. All the idols.
答:給所有的菩薩聽。
Hō· lóng-chóng ê pu̍t thiaⁿ.
應:予攏總的佛聽。

Q. Who are all these idols?
問:所有的菩薩是誰啊?
Lóng-chóng ê pu̍t sī sím-mi̍h pu̍t?
問:攏總的佛是甚物佛?

A. The idols that are in the house.
答:是指經書裡頭所有的菩薩。
Chiū-sī keng lāi só·-ū ê pu̍t.
應:就是經內所有的佛。

Q. After the service has been performed are the spirits let out of hell?
問:做法事完成之後,這些陰鬼是否就出地獄了?
Chòe kong-tek liáu, chiah-ê kúi ū chhut tē-ge̍k mah?
問:做功德了,遮个鬼有出地獄嗎?
Chòe kong-tek liáu, chiah-ê kúi ū chhut tē-ga̍k bô?〖當今的講法〗
做功德了,遮个鬼有出地獄無?

A. The priests say they do.
答:法師說有。
Hê-siūⁿ kóng ū.
應:和尚講有。

Q. Are these services expensive?
問:做法事、道場很花錢吧?
Chòe kong-tek tio̍h siong-tiōng só·-hùi mah?
問:做功德著傷重所費嗎?
Chòe kong-tek tio̍h siong-tiōng só·-hùi m̄?〖當今的講法〗
做功德著傷重所費毋?(做功德所費真傷重毋?)

A. It depends upon the person who employs the priests. A rich men will have to pay at least a thousand dollars.
答:這要看是誰請祭司了。有錢人至少得花個千把塊。
Sī chāi chú-lâng, nā hó-gia̍h lâng siāng-chió tio̍h khai chiâⁿ chheng kho· .
應:是在主儂,若好額②儂上少③著開成千箍。

【添注、說明】

①「拜懺」:pài-chhàm,做功德的時陣,卜佇神的面頭前做儙傸(khiàn-sńg),替死儂懺悔前所造罪業,懇求赦罪。
②「好額」:hó-gia̍h,意思是「富裕(hù-jū)」、「有錢」。
③「上少」:siāng-chió,原文記做按呢。照講,「上」廈門音應該著讀「siōng」,不而過,廈門儂soah較濟讀做「siāng」。Ah若「siōng」原仔(oân-á)有儂講啦,總是(chóng- -sī)較少。

On Doctors. 63.
醫生(1)

Q. Do the Chinese believe much in doctors?
問:中國人很相信醫生嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng ū put-chí sìn i-seng bô?
問:唐儂有不止信醫生無?

A. They believe in the more clever, but not in those that are not.
答:精明者信之,反之則不信。
Khah gâu- -ê chiū sìn, khah bô gâu- -ê chiū bô sìn.
應:較敖的就信,較無敖的就無信。

Q. Do the doctors study medicine?
問:醫生鑽研醫術嗎?
I-seng ū káng-kiù i-hoat bô?
問:醫生講究醫法無?

A. Not much.
答:不是很注重。
Bô sím-mi̍h káng-kiù.
應:無甚物講究。

Q. How can they heal if they do not study?
問:假如不鑽研的話如何行醫?
Nā bô káng-kiù beh thái oē heng-i?
問:若無講究卜汰會行醫?

A. They study medical works, and books on drugs.
答:讀醫書、藥籍。
Khoàⁿ chèng-thâu-chheh, khoàⁿ io̍h-chheh.
應:看症頭冊,看藥冊。

Q. Are there no universities or hospitals in China where they can study medicine?
問:中國沒有高級醫院或診所讓他們學習醫術嗎?
Tiong-kok kiám bô i-ke̍k i-koán thang káng-kiù i-hoat mah?
問:中國敢無醫局醫館通講究醫法嗎?
Tiong-kok kiám bô i-ke̍k i-koán thang káng-kiù i-hoat m̄?〖當今的講法〗
中國敢無醫局醫館通講究醫法毋?

A. Formerly there was not any, but now they are thinking of establishing some.
答:以前都沒有,但現在他們正計劃創辦。
Chá sī bô, taⁿ teh siūⁿ beh siat.
應:早是無,當(taⁿ)咧想卜設。

Q. What kind of people become doctors?
問:當醫生的,是什麼樣的人呢?
Sím-mi̍h hō ê lâng chòe i-seng?
問:甚物號的儂做醫生?
Sím-mi̍h khoán ê lâng teh chòe i-seng?〖當今的講法〗
甚物款的儂,咧做醫生?

A. Men from every class in society.
答:各種人都有。
Cha̍p-sek lâng lóng ū.
應:十色儂攏有。

On Doctors (Continued). 64.
醫生【2】

Q. How is any one bold enough to become a doctor without studying?
問:沒有研究的話怎麼敢當醫生呢?
Lâng bô káng-kiù thái-thó hiah hó-táⁿ káⁿ chòe i-seng?
問:儂無講究汰討①hiah好膽敢做醫生?

A. They desire a life of ease, and more money can be earned at this (than other professions).
答:他們渴望安逸的生活,並可以賺取更多的錢(比其他行業)。
Sī tham khah chheng-hân, khah thàn chîⁿ.
應:是貪較清閒,較趁錢。

Q. Have the doctors no responsibility?
問:醫生沒有責任嗎?
Chit-hō lâng hêng-i kiám bô koan-hē mah?
問:即號儂行醫敢無關係②嗎?
Chit-hō lâng hêng-i kiám bô koan-hē m̄?〖補記〗
即號儂行醫敢無關係毋?

A. Yes, but they dont think much about that.
答:有干係,但他們沒想那麼多。
Ū koan-hē, bô chhim-siūⁿ.
應:有關係,無深想。
Khiok ū koan-hē, chóng- -sī bô chhim-siūⁿ.〖補記〗
卻有關係,總是無深想。
Sī ū koan-hē lah, chóng- -sī bô teh siūⁿ hiah chōe.〖當今的講法〗
是有關係啦,總是無咧想hiah濟。

Q. Would the mandarins punish a man for causing a man’s death by the drugs he gave him?
問:若用藥物致人死亡,官府問罪嗎?
Nā sī ēng io̍h hāi tio̍h lâng, koaⁿ-hú oē pān-chōe bô?
問:若是用藥害著儂,官府會辦罪無?
Nā sī ēng io̍h hāi tio̍h lâng, koaⁿ-hú oē pān-chōe bōe?〖當今的講法〗
若是用藥害著儂,官府會辦罪勿會?

A. According to law they ought, but as a rule they don’t.
答:依法應該要,但實際上沒有。
Chiàu hoat tio̍h, chóng- -sī pêng-siông bô.
應:照法著,總是平常無。

Q. Then if a doctor injures a man, is the matter just allowed to drop?
問:那如果醫生傷到人,事情也能夠不了了之嗎?
Nā sī àn-ni, hāi lâng kan-ta soah mah?
問:若是按呢害儂干凋煞嗎?
Nā sī án-ni, hāi lâng kan-ta soah m̄?〖當今的講法〗
若是按呢害儂干凋煞毋?

A. Is the friends of the man that dies are powerful it does not, but if they are not then it does.
答:如果死去人的較有權勢,就難以平息;但若是沒權勢很快能平息。
Sí-chhin ū sè oh soah, bô sè chiū khoài soah.
應:死親③有勢僫煞,無勢就快煞。
Sí-chhin ū sè oh soah, bô sè tio̍h khah kín soah.〖補記〗
應:死親有勢僫煞,無勢較緊煞。

Q. What medicine is used in ague?
問:患瘧疾用什麼藥治呢?
Koâⁿ-jia̍t ēng sím-mi̍h io̍h tī?
問:寒熱④用甚物藥治?

A. All kinds are used; there is no settled medicine.
問:無所不用,但沒有固定哪種藥能對症。
Loān-loān ēng, bô tiāⁿ-tio̍h io̍h.
問:亂亂用,無定著藥。
Loān-loān ēng, bô tiāⁿ-tio̍h io̍h thang tī.〖補記〗
亂亂用,無定著藥通治。

Q. How do the Chinese think ague arises?
問:中國人認為瘧疾是怎樣產生的呢?
Tn̂g-lâng phah-sǹg koâⁿ-jia̍t cháiⁿ-iūⁿ khí?
問:唐儂拍算寒熱怎樣起?

A. They think there are two spirits at work. One of these carries a furnace, and the other a palm leaf fan.
答:他們認為是兩種鬼神在搞鬼。其中一個捧火爐,而另一個持芭蕉扇。
Phah-sǹg sī nn̄g-hō kúi teh chok-lōng, chi̍t-ê phâng hang-lô·, chi̍t-ê kia̍h khê-sìⁿ.
應:拍算是兩號鬼咧作弄,一个捧烘爐,一个攑葵扇。

【添注、說明】

①「汰討」:「thái-thó」,意思是「因何」,相當普通話所講的「怎、怎麼」,用佇反問句。
②「關係」:「koan-hē」,意思是「相干」(siong-kan)。
③「死親」:「sí-chhin」,死儂的親屬、親儂。「屍親」是「死體」的親屬。
④「寒熱」:「koâⁿ-jia̍t」,「寒熱病」,是「瘧疾(gio̍k-chi̍t / gio̍k-che̍k)」。發作的時陣,規身拍寒拍熱(phah-koâⁿ phah-jia̍t),起交陰寒(ka-im-koâⁿ)。

On Doctors. (Continued) 65.
醫生【3】

Q. What is the idea of carrying a furnace?
問:捧火爐是什麼意思?
Phâng hang-lô· sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:捧烘爐甚物意思?

A. The idea is that there is fire in the furnace which causes heat.
答:意思是指爐內有火,致其發熱。
Ì-sù hang-lô· lāi ū hé, beh hō· i jia̍t.
應:意思烘爐內有火,卜予伊熱。

Q. What is the meaning of the palm leaf?
問:芭蕉扇是指什麼意思?
Khê-sìⁿ sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:葵扇甚物意思?

A. To fan him so that he will get cold.
答:要扇他,使其發冷。
Beh ia̍t-hong hō· i koâⁿ.
應:卜曳風予伊寒。

Q. Do men sometimes enquire of the idol when they get sick?
問:有時候人們生病了,會去求神卜卦嗎?
Ū-sî phòa-pīⁿ, ū mn̄g pu̍t bô?
問:有時儂破病,有問佛無?

A. They invariably do.
答:常常這麼做。
Siông-siông ū.
應:常常有。

Q. How can the idols prescribe medicine when they can’t speak?
問:神明不會講話,又如何能夠開藥方?
Pu̍t bōe kóng-oē thái-thó oē phài io̍h?
問:佛勿會講話汰討會派藥?

A. They draw lots, toss the divining rods, or employ the Taoist medium.
答:他們抽籤、卜卦,或者求助於乩童。
Thiu-chhiam, poa̍h-poe, ēng ki-tông.
應:抽籤、跋杯①,用乩童②。

Q. Have they also any other plan?
問:還有其它的辦法嗎?
Iā ū sím-mi̍h pa̍t hāng hoat-tō· bô?
問:也有甚物別物法度無?

A. They carry the idol to the druggist’s shop and buy medicine.
答:抬著佛像到藥店去買藥。
Kng pu̍t khì io̍h-tiàm ka-kī bóe.
應:掆佛去藥店家己買。

Q. Are they made well by taking it?
問:吃完,是否應驗見效呢?
Chia̍h liáu, ū èng-hāu bô?
問:食了,有應效無?

A. More frequently not.
答:往往沒有。
Khah chōe bô.
應:較濟無。

【添注、說明】

①「跋杯」:「poa̍h-poe」,普通話講「擲筊杯」。「筊杯」著是閩南話咧講的「siūⁿ-poe」。「筊杯」,古冊亦有記做「桮筊」、「盃珓」、「杯珓」。解說(kái-seh)講是占卜(chiam-pok)咧用的傢俬頭仔。唐朝詩人韩愈《謁衡岳庙》诗:「手持盃珓導我擲,云此最吉余難同。」宋葉夢得《石林燕語》卷一:「太祖皇帝微時,嘗被酒入南京高辛廟,香案有竹桮筊,因取以佔己之名位。」宋程大昌《演繁露·卜教》:「後世問卜於神有器名杯珓者,以兩蚌殼投空鄭地,觀其俯仰,以斷休咎……或以竹,或以木,略斵削使如蛤形,而中分為二,有仰有俯,故亦名杯珓。」 元張國賓《合汗衫》第二折:「我那徐州東嶽廟至靈至聖,有個玉杯珓兒,擲個上上大吉。」

②「乩童」:「ki-tông」,嘛有講做「童乩」(tâng-ki)。

On Doctors. (Continued) 66.
醫生【4】

Q. Have the doctors settled medicines for common complaints?
問:對於常見病,醫生有固定的藥物可治嗎?
Pêng-siông-pīⁿ i-seng ū tiāⁿ-tio̍h thang tī bô?
問:平常病醫生有定著藥通治無?

A. Yes.
答:有。
Ū.
應:有。

Q. In a case of inflammation, how do the doctors think it is caused?
問:當出現炎症的話,醫生會認為是如何產生的呢?
Kiám-chhái lâng hoat-iām, i-seng phah-sǹg cháiⁿ-iūⁿ khí?
問:敢採儂發炎,醫生拍算怎樣起?

A. The most people say it is heat pent up in the system.
答:大多認為是體身火氣過旺所致。
Khah chōe kóng sī tùi ut hé.
應:較濟講是對鬱火。

Q. How do they reduce it?
問:如何降低呢?
Ēng sím-mi̍h hoat-tō· hō· i thè?
問:用甚物法度予伊退?

A. They reduce it by giving cooling medicines.
答:服用降火的藥物來退火。
Chia̍h chheng-io̍h thè iām.
應:食清藥退炎。

Q. Do Chinese doctors feel the pulse?
問:中國的大夫把脈嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng i-seng ū bōng me̍h mah?
問:唐儂醫生有摸脈嗎?
Tn̂g-lâng i-seng ū bong me̍h bô?〖當今的講法〗
唐儂醫生有摸脈無?

A. Every one does.
答:每個都有。
Ta̍k-ê ū.
應:逐个有。

Q. Do they feel one wrist or both?
問:把單手,還是兩手都把?
Ū bong chi̍t chhiú á nn̄g chhiú?
問:有摸一手抑兩手?

A. They feel both.
答:兩手都把。
Nn̄g chhiú lóng bong.
應:兩手攏摸。

Q. Why do they feel both?
問:為什麼兩手都要把呢?
I siáⁿ-sū bong nn̄g chhiú?
問:伊啥事摸兩手?
I mih-tāi bong nn̄g chhiú?〖當今的講法〗
伊乜代摸兩手咧?

A. They say the pulses are not the same.
答:說是兩手脈動不一樣。
In kóng nn̄g chhiú bô pîⁿ.
應:亻因講兩手無平。
In kóng nn̄g chhiú bô sio-siâng.〖當今的講法〗
亻因講兩手無sio-siâng。

Q. After feeling the pulses do they prescribe medicine?
問:號脈之後,開藥嗎?
Bong-me̍h ū phài-io̍h bô?
問:摸脈有派藥無?

A. They do.
答:有。
Ū.
應:有。

On The Story teller. 67.
評書人【1】(講古仙【1】)

Q. How is it that men every where go out to read stories from ancient books?
問:各個地方的人評古說書是怎麼一回事的呢?
Ta̍k só·-chāi lâng teh kóng-kó· sī sím-mi̍h ì-sù?
問:逐所在儂咧講古是甚物意思?

A. To amuse people.
答:旨在娛樂逗趣。
Beh hō· lâng thiaⁿ sim-sek ê tāi-chì.
應:卜予儂聽心適的代誌。

Q. What do they read?
問:都講些什麼事呢?
Sī kóng sím-mi̍h tāi-chì?
問:是講甚物代誌?

A. Mostly stories of ancient times.
答:往往是講古代的事情。
Khah chōe sī kó·-chá ê tāi-chì.
應:較濟是古早的代誌。

Q. What dynasties are considered ancient?
問:有哪些朝代算是古代?
Sím-mi̍h tiâu-tē sǹg sī kó·-chá?
問:甚物朝代算是古早?

A. The Chow, Tsin, and Han.
答:周、秦、漢。
Chiu-tiâu, Chîn-tiâu, Hàn-tiâu.
應:周朝、秦朝、漢朝。

Q. What other dynasties nearer to us (are ancient)?
問:較接近我們的,還有哪些朝代呢?
Lo̍h- -lâi iáu-ū sím-mi̍h tiâu-tē?
問:落來猶有甚物朝代?

A. Tang, Sung, Yuan, and Ming dynasties.
答:唐、宋、元、明等等。
Tông, Sòng, Goân, Bêng, chiah-ê.
應:唐、宋、元、明,遮个。

Q. When they speak of ancient times, what do they talk about?
問:講到古代時,都說些什麼呢?
Kóng kó·-chá ê tāi-chì, sī teh kóng sím-mi̍h?
問:講古早的代誌,是咧講甚物?

A. They tell of how emperors ruled, and ministers took care of the nation, also who were loyal, and who were traitors.
答:說皇帝如何治國,臣子如何護國,誰盡忠,誰叛逆奸詐。
Kóng hông-tè cháiⁿ-iūⁿ tī kok, jîn-sîn cháiⁿ-iūⁿ pó kok, sím-mi̍h lâng chīn-tiong, sím-mi̍h lâng kan-chà.
應:講皇帝怎樣治國,人臣怎樣保國,甚物儂盡忠,甚物奸詐。

On The story teller (Continued). 68.
評書人【2】(講古仙【2】)

Q. What else do they relate?
問:還有講些什麼相關的嗎?
Iáu-ū kóng sím-mi̍h?
問:猶有講甚物?

A. They also tell how such and such a traitor ruined the empire, and how such and such a loyal minister saved it.
答:還說某某漢奸如何害國,以及某某忠臣如何救國。
Iā-ū kóng bó· kan-sîn ū hāi kok, bó· tiong-sîn ū kiù- -i.
應:也有講某奸臣有害國,某忠臣有救伊。
Mā-ū kóng bó·-mi̍h kan-sîn cháiⁿ-iūⁿ teh hāi kok, bó·-mi̍h tiong-sîn cháiⁿ-iūⁿ teh kiù kok.〖當今的講法〗
嘛有講某物奸臣怎樣咧害國,某物忠臣怎樣咧救國。

Q. Do they also tell of the wars?
問:還講到出兵征戰嗎?
Iā-ū kóng khí chhut-chiàn bô?
問:也有講起出戰無?

A. Yes, and of how China when she was smaller frequently went to war to conquer other places.
答:是的,早前中國還比較小的時候常常出兵征戰其它地方。
Ū, chá Tiong-kok khah sòe, siông-siông chhut-chiàn phah só·-chāi.
應:有,早中國較細常常出戰拍所在。

Q. Who are these story tellers?
問:說書的是些什麼人呢?
Kóng-kó· sī sím-mi̍h hō ê lâng?
問:講古是甚物號的儂?

A. Sometimes scholars that have failed in their studies and in business, and having no work they become story tellers.
答:盡是些學業無成,生意失敗,沒有工作的人,成了說書人。
Ū-ê sī m̄-chiâⁿ tha̍k-chheh, m̄-chiâⁿ chòe seng-lí, bô kang thang chòe chiah kóng-kó· .
應:有的是毋成讀冊,毋成做生理,無工通做則講古。

Q. About how much do they make in a day?
問:幹一天大約能賺多少錢?
Iok-lio̍k chi̍t ji̍t khioh-tit jōa-chōe chîⁿ?
問:約略一日抾得偌濟錢?

A. The utmost is four or five hundred cash, and the least is over a hundred.
答:最多時四五百塊,最少時百來塊。
Khah chōe sì gō· pah, khah chió pah-gōa chîⁿ.
應:較濟四五百,較少百外錢。
Khah chōe sì gō· pah, khah chió pah-gōa gûn.〖補記〗
較濟四五百,較少百外銀。

Q. How long do they speak daily?
問:每天講多久?
Chi̍t ji̍t kóng jōa kú?
問:一日講偌久?

A. About four hours in the afternoon.
答:大約四個鐘頭,在下午。
Ē-po· sî, iok-lio̍k sì tiám-cheng kú.
應:下晡時,約略四點鐘久。

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Comments: 9

  1. Kua 2010-03-05 at 10:42:00 Reply

    第35課:「明仔再(bîn-á-chài)」,照古冊記載,通知影往過廈門話的確是按呢講的,毋kú,即陣攏變做「mî-á-chài」,這拍算是唸走音去,年久月深soah定型。好得,漳州海澄腔,即陣照原是講做「bîn-á-chài」。

    Lîm–sian, 我想 berh 甲汝 討論–一下 頂面 hit 點.

    同安 “明” 唸 “miâ”, 親像 “清明(chhiⁿ-miâ )” ;

    北京話”明天”, 同安 講 “miâ chài “(兩字計念本調) , 我先寫做 “明 載”(兩字計念本調);
    “明 載” 源頭 “明–早起(miâ–chá-khí)”, “明(miâ) 唸本調, “早起” 合音 擱(koh) 唸輕聲 變 “載(chài)” 音;

    北京話”明天早上”, 同安 講 “mia-chá-khí “, 我先寫做”mia-早起” , 源頭 “明載早起”, “明載” 先合音後 本調 “mia”, 擱 正常變調後變 “miā” ;

    北京話”明年”, 同安 講 “mâ-nî “, 本音 應該 是 “miâ-nî “, 漢字”明年”;
    “miâ” 變 “mâ” ê 因端 范勢是:
    1. “明(miâ)年” 變調後 聽–khiái 甲 “命年” 同音, “命年” 犯著忌(khī), 介音 “i” 無–去,
    2. 同安(甲泉州)腔 相對 漳腔 較少介音 “i” , 介音 “i” 去 予伊 拍 加落(ka-la̍uh)–去;

    北京話 ê “明天”, 漳州 甲 泉州 計計 是 講 「明仔再(bîn-á-chài)」(bîn-ná-chài),
    偏偏 同安 甲 廈門 講 “miâ chài ” (兩字計念本調) ?

    同安腔歷史久長, 相對穩定成熟; 廈門島自古屬同安縣, 到 民國 才(chiah) 自立;
    廈門古早講 “明仔再”, 應該是彼(hit)陣漳系人初移民來同安縣, 猶(á)擱 照 漳州講;廈門 路尾 改講 “miâ chài “(兩字計念本調) , 應該 是 改講 同安腔, 毋是唸走音去.

    To Kua: 當今佇廈門的確攏讀做「tó-lo̍h」,塞音無去。不而過,往時拍算讀做”toh-lo̍h” ,因為規本〈英華口才集〉對頭到尾,出現幾若百擺”toh-lo̍h” ,無kah一擺「tó-lo̍h」。佫再講,當今台灣嘛是”toh位” 較佔贏面。(by Lim)

  2. 莽撞牛 2010-04-02 at 01:23:51 Reply

    第37課,我亦寻着“pio”是“标”字。第51課,【添注、說明】第二点阮就用“suà”,意思是“连同;都;甚至”,只重意思我觉察着汝济项时用“soah”。

    To 莽撞牛: 不而過,我反倒感覺講現此時即詞是「竟然」的意思neh。即陣閩台,的確有影攏講做「soah」,連《台日典》嘛記做「soah」。比論講《台日典》有舉例:「伊∼無來」、「我∼予伊罵」。所以,佫對比起來,敢會是「sòa」變「soah」???

    另外,有一个「煞」,表示「結局、完結」,比論講「代誌做煞」(事做完)。

    ps.「sòa」佇閩台,即陣意思是「接續」,比論講「相連sòa」(一連串)、「sòa手」(順手)。(by Lim)

  3. Kua 2010-04-07 at 10:43:37 Reply

    “Si tùi toh-lo̍h lâi?
    問:絲對叨落來?”

    “toh-lo̍h” 本調應是 “tó-lo̍h” ?

    To Kua: 當今佇廈門的確攏讀做「tó-lo̍h」,塞音無去。不而過,往時拍算讀做”toh-lo̍h” ,因為規本〈英華口才集〉對頭到尾,出現幾若百擺”toh-lo̍h” ,無kah一擺「tó-lo̍h」。佫再講,當今台灣嘛是”toh位” 較佔贏面。(by Lim)

  4. tan 2010-04-11 at 10:45:30 Reply

    可能性不大。泉腔是[to24-loh5]只有才符合。
    厦腔阴入-h有些字变调成5,于是和阴上很像。阴上的音有时会错写为阴入。

  5. 28554010 2010-04-15 at 07:00:10 Reply

    第一課的na7表示「只」,在泉州是很平常的詞彙。lau7反而沒聽過。
    更常見的詞是m7-na7「不只」。第65課的跋[片咅],這個字可能就是「杯」。參見:
    http://www.zdic.net/cd/ci/8/ZdicE6Zdic9DZdicAF58066.htm

    To 28554010:嗯。又去問了一下晉江及石獅一帶的網友,說是「nāu」才對,同時還保留有「nā」。65課的那個本字是不是「杯」難說,不過,古人既然已經寫為「桮筊/杯珓」,且遵從古人寫法倒也可行。(by Lim)

  6. 28554010 2010-04-15 at 07:19:08 Reply

    30課「敢」káⁿ表示肯定推測。泉州很常用。生花/熟花也是很常聽到的說法。

  7. 28554010 2010-04-15 at 07:34:51 Reply

    32課「常」siông在泉州也很常用。並非同安特色。當然tsia̍p也常聽到。不過tsiap8在我聽來不是「經常」的意思。而是「連續好幾次;頻繁的意思。」

    To 28554010:「捷」確實帶有「連續性、頻繁性」,而「常」則沒有「連續性」且「頻繁性不如『捷』」。(by Lim)

  8. Taokara 2010-04-15 at 13:58:35 Reply

    我來說謝,這本口才集真心適,有足濟語料,我咧讀ê時,不時有看著 1895-1940 中間《台灣教會公報》內底ê用詞,tann想–起-來,就是古早話–lah!看第29課文中句尾「mah」ê用法,想著 1885 年開始發行ê《台灣府城教會報》(台灣教會公報)mā 足濟 tsit-ê 用法,m̄ 知 tse kap 華語 ê『嗎』kám 有關連?

    我有 tī 早期 ê 文法冊內底看著解說,是 kā 講做「反問語氣 ê 句尾疑問助詞」,kám 定著有「反問」ê語氣?想 beh 聽你 ê 意思。

    To Taokara: 莫(bo̍h)客氣啦。若汝講的,的確有影!《台灣教會公報》我嘛有去看,確確有影真sio-siâng。句尾「mah」ê用法,若是照原文句尾的 「mah」來看,通看出這明顯毋是「反問」的語氣,因為佫有英語原句通對照。

    佫來講另外一款情形啦。像下底對話的句法,我感覺有「反問」ê語氣佇咧。比論講:

    阿龍: 阿華,汝早起明明無去嘛!是按怎硬卜騙儂講汝有去?
    阿華: 我無去?!無汝講我去叨位嘛?!

    阿龍講的「嘛」,佮阿華講的「嘛」,我感覺計計有「反問」的語氣。予汝參考看māi咧。(by Lim)

  9. 斯文施 2010-04-17 at 08:03:20 Reply

    kiam2 和 號 泉州原在猶咧講

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